Acanthaceae

 Staurogyne leptocaulis ssp. decumbens, copyright Kevin Thiele.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Thunbergioideae, Acanthoideae.

The Acanthaceae is a group of mostly tropical herbs, shrubs and vines. They are commonly divided between three subfamilies, of which the Nelsonioideae have non-explosive fruits without a retinaculum and descending-cochlear flower aestivation (Scotland & Vollesen 2000). Members of the Nelsonioideae include Staurogyne, a pantropical genus of herbs and small shrubs found in damp habitats that may be at least seasonally amphibious. Nelsonia are prostrate herbs bearing flowers lacking bracteoles.

<==Acanthaceae [Acanthalium]
    |  i. s.: Multiareolites formosus Pares Regali et al. 1984CBH93
    |         Multimarginites vanderhammeni Germeraad et al. 1968CBH93
    |         Enslenia Raf. 1817KC01
    |         Goldfussia dalhousianaSS72
    |         Hexacentris mysorensisT-W89
    |--+--ThunbergioideaeOP01
    |  `--AcanthoideaeOP01
    `--NelsonioideaeSV00
         |--AnisosepalumSV00
         |--GynocrateriumSV00
         |--OphiorrhiziphyllonSV00
         |--SaintpauliopsisSV00
         |--Elytraria [incl. Tubiflora]SV00
         |    `--E. crenataSV00
         |--NelsoniaLK14
         |    |--N. campestrisLK14
         |    `--N. canescensC55
         `--Staurogyne [incl. Ancistrostylis, Ebermaiera, Erythracanthus, Neozenkerina, Staurogynopsis, Zenkerina]SV00
              `--S. leptocaulisLK14
                   |--S. l. ssp. leptocaulisLK14
                   `--S. l. ssp. decumbensLK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[SV00] Scotland, R. W., & K. Vollesen. 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin 55 (3): 513–589.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

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