Mould mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, from the US Department of Agriculture.

Belongs within: Acaroidea.
Contains: Acarus, Rhizoglyphinae.

The Acaridae are a diverse group of often generalised astigmatan mites. Many species are insect associates with a phoretic hypopus (deutonymph) stage in the life cycle (Philips 1990). Members of the basal subfamily Acarinae appear to be vertebrate nidicoles (i.e. living in vertebrate nesting structures such as nests, burrows or human houses); deutonymphs are known to be phoretic on fleas (OConnor 2001). The Australian Psyllacarus subellipticus was described from hypopi on fleas collected from rats. Horstiinae are nidicoles and/or kleptoparasites of social insects such as bees, ants and termites (OConnor 2009).

The Tyrophaginae are ancestrally associated with Hymenoptera, both solitary and social species, but most Tyrophagus have diversed into a broader range of habitats (OConnor 2001). The ant-associated T. formicitorum still produces phoretic deutonymphs but other species lack deutonymphal dispersal. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is perhaps the world’s most ubiquitous astigmatan mite and is commonly found in peridomestic situations or on plant tissue (OConnor 2009).

Characters (from Philips 1990): Chelicerae chelate-dentate. Idiosoma usually smooth, with simple setae; setae vi present; sejugal furrow present. Tarsi with pair of sclerotised condylophores supporting well-developed empodial claw in fleshy pretarsus; tibia I with two setae and one solenidion. Males usually with pair of anal suckers and pair of suckers on tarsus IV. Hypopus with scapular setae smooth; posteroventral sucker plate present.

<==Acaridae [Acarini, Tyroglyphidae, Tyroglyphiens]
    |    |--Psyllacarus Fain et al. 1990O01, H98
    |    |    `--P. subellipticus Fain et al. 1990H98
    |    `--+--ParaceroglyphusO01
    |       `--+--TrichopsylopusO01
    |          `--AcarusO01
       |    |--NeohorstiaO01
       |    `--+--+--MegachilopusO01
       |       |  `--+--SennertionyxO01
       |       |     `--Cerophagopsis Zakhvatkin 1941O01, H98
       |       |          |--C. indicusO01
       |       |          `--C. trigona (Fain & Heard 1987) [=Cerophagus trigonus]H98
       |       `--+--DiadasiopusO01
       |          `--+--HorstiellaO01
       |             `--+--MedeusO01
       |                `--HorstiaO01 [incl. CeroglyphusO09]
       |                     |--H. longaO01
       |                     `--H. virginicaK62
       `--+--+--‘Acotyledon’ formosaniO01
          |  `--RhizoglyphinaeO01
          `--Tyrophaginae [Tyrophagidae]O01
               |  i. s.: SchulzeaO01
               |         Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau 1879)O01, DA07
               `--+--Kuzinia laevisO01, KK96
                  `--+--Forcellinia Oudemans 1924O01, H98
                     |    |--F. galleriella Womersley 1963H98
                     |    `--F. wasmanniG39
                     `--Tyrophagus Oudemans 1924O01, H98 [Tyrophagini]
                          |  i. s.: T. australasiae (Oudemans 1916) [=Tyroglyphus australasiae]V25
                          |         T. formicitorumO01
                          |         T. fungivorus (Oudemans 1932)SL71
                          |         T. laevis (Dujardin 1849)C66
                          |         T. lini (Oudemans 1924)SL71
                          |         T. neiswanderi Johnston & Bruce 1965W91
                          |         T. oudemansi Robertson 1959F76
                          |         T. palmarum Oudemans 1924W91
                          |         T. perniciosus Zachvatkin 1941W91
                          |         T. similis Volgin 1949 [incl. T. oudemansi Robertson 1959]H98
                          |           |--T. s. similisF76
                          |           `--T. s. kerguelenensis Fain 1976F76
                          |         T. zachvatkiniO09
                          |--T. longior (Gervais 1844)FF22, H98 (see below for synonymy)
                          `--+--*T. putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)V25, FF22, V25 (see below for synonymy)
                             `--T. fanetzhangorumFF22

Acaridae incertae sedis:
  Mycetoglyphus fungivorusO01, KA07
  Tyroborus Oudemans 1924H98
    |--T. houstoni Fain 1986H98
    `--T. lini (Oudemans 1924)DA07
    |--N. bakeriW99
    `--N. mumaiW99
  Trichodactylus xylocopaeCF77
  Australhypopus Fain & Friend 1984H98
    `--A. flagellifer Fain & Friend 1984H98
  Lowryacarus Fain 1986H98
    `--L. longipes Fain 1986H98
  Tyrolichus Oudemans 1924H98
    `--T. casei Oudemans 1910 [=Tyrophagus casei]H98
  Mycetophagus fungivorusAL37
  Tropacarus bakeri Collyer 1967SL71
  Amphicalvolia hurdi Türk 1963P92

Tyrophagus longior (Gervais 1844)FF22, H98 [=Tyroglyphus longiorH98; incl. Tyrophagus tenuiclavus Zachvatkin 1941H98, Tyrofagus (l. c.) tenuiclavusH98]

*Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)V25, FF22, V25 [=Acarus putrescentiaeH98, Tyroglyphus (*Tyrophagus) putrescentiaeV25; incl. Tyroglyphus longior var. castellanii Hirst 1912H98, Tyrophagus castellaniiH98, Tyroglyphus lintneri Osborn 1893H98]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[C66] Costa, M. 1966. The biology and development of Hypoaspis (Pneumolaelaps) hyatti (Acari: Mesostigmata). Journal of Zoology 148: 191–200.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159–171.

[F76] Fain, A. 1976. Acariens récoltés par le Dr. J. Travé aux iles subantarctiques II. Familles Acaridae, Anoetidae, Ereynetidae et Tarsonemidae (astigmates et prostigmates). Acarologia 18 (2): 302–328.

[FF22] Fang, Y., Y. Fang, L. Chu, Z. Zuo, L. Liu, R. Feng, Z. Zhang, X. Zhan, F. Li, C. Hu, L. Ding, M. Wu, R. Pan, R. Han, X. Xia, Y. Wen & E. Sun. 2022. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Bdelloidea (Trombidiformes, Eupodina) and comparative genomics provide insights into gene rearrangement and evolution of trombidiform mites. Journal of Stored Products Research 98: 102009.

[G39] Grandjean, F. 1939. La chaetotaxie des pattes chez les Acaridiae. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 64: 50–60.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KA07] Kasuga, S., & H. Amano. 2007. Tyrophagus mites (Acari: Acaridae) as agricultural pests in Japan, with special reference to spinach cultivation. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 443–450. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite of the megachilid bee, Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodactylidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 237–250.

[KK96] Kumar, N. R., & R. Kumar. 1996. Mites in plant pollinator ecosystem: influence on conserving biodiversity. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 133–136. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[O01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 76–82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 565–657. Texas Tech University Press.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757–778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Review of Australian Asperoseius Chant, Euseius Wainstein, Okiseius Ehara and Phytoscutus Muma (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) with a key to the genera of Australian Amblyseiinae and descriptions of two new species. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 85–95.

[W91] Walzl, M. G. 1991. Comparison of the sclerotized structures of Acaridae and Glycyphagidae used for copulation. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 283–286. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

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