Accipiter

 Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis, photographed by Elaine R. Wilson.

Belongs within: Accipitridae.
Contains: Circus.

Accipiter is a cosmopolitan genus containing the goshawks and related predators of small birds and mammals. Accipiter species have long shanks, long tails and round, broad wings, and are fast, agile fliers. Molecular data support a close relationship between Accipiter and the harriers of the genus Circus; indeed, the phylogenetic analysis by Jetz et al. (2012) suggests that the latter may even be nested within Accipiter. In this phylogeny, Circus is placed as sister to a clade of relatively large accipiters, including the northern goshawk A. gentilis, the bicoloured hawk A. bicolor and Cooper’s hawk A. cooperii.

A basal clade includes such species as the collared sparrowhawk A. cirrocephalus, Chinese sparrowhawk A. gularis and besra A. virgatus. Members of this clade, found in Asia and Australasia, are dark above (including on the crown) and are often rufous and/or barred on the breast. The grey goshawk A. novaehollandiae is an pale-coloured Australian species, either pale grey above and white below or sometimes even entirely white.

<==Accipiter Brisson 1760CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--A. soloensisBKB15
    |  `--+--A. cirrocephalus (Vieillot 1817)BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |     `--+--A. gularisBKB15
    |        |    |--A. g. gularisI92
    |        |    `--A. g. iwasakii Mishima 1962I92
    |        `--A. virgatusBKB15
    `--+--+--CircusBKB15
       |  `--+--A. gentilis (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |     |    |--A. g. gentilisI92
       |     |    |--A. g. fujiyamae (Swann & Hartert 1923)I92
       |     |    `--A. g. schvedowiI92
       |     `--+--A. bicolorBKB15
       |        `--A. cooperiiBKB15 [=Falco cooperiScl66; incl. F. stanleyiiScl66]
       `--+--+--A. tachiroBKB15
          |  `--+--A. imitatorBKB15
          |     `--A. novaehollandiae (Gmelin 1788)BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |--A. n. novaehollandiaeWS48
          |          |--A. n. cooktowni (Mathews 1912) (see below for synonymy)WS48
          |          `--A. n. griseogularisJ06
          `--+--*A. nisus (Linnaeus 1758)CC10, BKB15, M02 [=Falco nisusM02]
             |    |--A. n. nisusI92
             |    `--A. n. nisosimilis (Tickell 1833)I92
             `--+--+--A. erythronemius Gray 1848BKB15, Scl66 [=Nisus fringillarius erythronemiusScl66; incl. N. striatusScl66]
                |  `--A. rufiventrisBKB15
                `--A. striatusBKB15
                     |--A. s. striatusSWK87
                     |--A. s. veloxA68
                     `--A. s. venatorSWK87
Accipiter incertae sedis:
  A. albogularisJT12
  A. atricapillus (Wilson 1812)S05 [=Falco atricapillusS05, Ac. gentilis atricapillusA68, Astur atricapillusS05]
  A. badiusJT12
  A. brachyurusJT12
  A. brevipesJT12
  ‘Nisus’ brutusSch66
  A. butleriJT12
  A. castanilius Bp. 1853Scl66
  A. chilensisJT12
  A. chionogaster (Kaup 1851)JT12, Scl66 [=Nisus chionogasterScl66]
  A. collaris Sclater 1860Scl66
  A. erythrauchenJT12
  A. erythropusJT12
  A. fasciatus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827)CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. f. fasciatusCC10
    |--A. f. didimus (Mathews 1912) [=Astur fasciatus didimus]WS48
    |--‘Astur approximans’ insularis Sarasin 1913S13
    |--A. f. natalisM03
    `--A. f. vigilaxCC10
  A. francesiaeJT12 [=Nisus francesiiSch66]
    |--A. f. francesiaeUSDI77
    `--A. f. pusillusUSDI77
  A. fringillariusV41
  A. fuscus [=Falco fuscus; incl. F. dubius, F. pennsylvanicus, F. velox]Scl66
  A. griseicepsJT12
  A. gundlachiJT12
    |--A. g. gundlachiHSS13
    `--A. g. wileyiHSS13
  A. haplochrous (Sclater 1859)JT12, S13 [=Astur haplochrousS13]
  A. henicogrammusJT12
  A. henstiiJT12
  ‘Astur’ hyderE42
  ‘Nisus’ lantziiSch66
  A. luteoschistaceusJT12
  A. madagascariensisJT12 [=Nisus madagascariensisSch66]
  A. melanochlamysJT12
  A. melanoleucusJT12
  A. meyerianusJT12 [=A. fasciatus meyerianusCC10]
  A. minullusJT12
  ‘Nisus’ morelii [=Nisuoides morelii]Sch66
  A. nanusJT12
  A. ovampensisJT12
  A. pectoralis [=Falco pectoralis]Scl66
  A. pileatus [=Falco pileatus]Scl66
  A. poliocephalusJT12
  A. poliogasterJT12
  A. princepsJT12
  A. rhodogasterJT12
  A. ruficaudus [=Falco ruficaudus; incl. F. borealis]J23
  A. rufitorquesJT12 [=A. fasciatus rufitorquesCC10]
  ‘Astur’ sharpeiR87a
  A. tinus [=Falco tinus, Nisus tinus; incl. Accipiter fontanieri]Scl66
  A. torquatusR87a [=Falco (Urospizias) torquatusR87a, Astur torquatusS13]
  A. tousseneliiJT12
  A. trinotatusJT12
  ‘Astur’ unicinctusF43
  A. ventralis Sclater 1866Scl66

Accipiter Brisson 1760CC10 [incl. Astur Lacépède 1799CC10, Leucospiza Kaup 1844CC10, Nisus Lacépède 1799B94, Paraspizias Mathews 1915CC10, Urospiza Kaup 1844CC10; Asturinae, Nisinae]

Accipiter cirrocephalus (Vieillot 1817)BKB15, WS48 [=Sparvius cirrhocephalusCC10, *Paraspizias cirrhocephalusCC10; incl. Astur cirrocephalus broomei Mathews 1912WS48]

Accipiter fasciatus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827)CC10 [=Astur fasciatusCC10; incl. Astur approximans Vigors & Horsfield 1827CC10, Astur cruentus Gould 1843CC10, Accipiter fasciatus cruentusWS48, Astur fasciatus mackayi Mathews 1912CC10, Astur maculosus Coles 1897CC10, Falco radiatus Latham 1801CC10, WS48, Accipiter radiatusSJ85, Astur radiatusR87b, Erythrotriorchis radiatusWS48, *Urospiza radiataCC10, Urospiza fasciata rennelliana Kinghorn 1937CC10, Erythrotriorchis rufotibia Campbell 1911WS48]

Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 [=Falco gentilisM02; incl. Ac. gentilis brevidactylus Mourer-Chauviré 1975M02, F. palumbarius Linnaeus 1758CC10, L58, Ac. (*Astur) palumbariusS05, CC10]

Accipiter novaehollandiae (Gmelin 1788)BKB15, WS48 [=Falco novaehollandiaeCC10, Astur novaehollandiaeCH89, *Leucospiza novaehollandiaeCC10]

Accipiter novaehollandiae cooktowni (Mathews 1912) [=Astur clarus cooktowni; incl. Astur novaehollandiae alboides Mathews 1912]WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A68] Ashmole, N. P. 1968. Body size, prey size, and ecological segregation in five sympatric tropical terns (Aves: Laridae). Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 292–304.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CH89] Cox, J. D., & A. G. Hamilton. 1889. A list of the birds of the Mudgee district, with notes on their habits, etc. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 395–424.

[E42] Ewer, W. 1842. List of a collection of birds from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 91–93.

[F43] Fraser, L. 1843. On the collection of birds brought to England by Mr. Bridges. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 108–121.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R87a] Ramsay, E. P. 1887a. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[R87b] Ramsay, E. P. 1887b. Descriptions of Australian birds’ eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1141–1152, pl. 19.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On a new species of the genus Accipiter from New Granada. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 302–304.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SJ85] Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[V41] Vigne, G. T. 1841. Relating to a collection of birds formed in Thibet and Cashmere. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 6–7.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *