Accipitriformes

Andean condor Vultur gryphus, copyright Andres Bertens.

Belongs within: Telluraves.
Contains: Accipitridae.

The Accipitriformes are a clade of mostly predatory birds united by molecular data. Members of this clade have sharply hooked bills and powerful feet with an opposable hind toe and long claws, but these features may also be found in other bird clades.

The New World vultures and condors of the Cathartidae are basal Accipitriformes that are probably close relatives of the fossil Teratornithidae. Cathartids are specialised scavengers but teratorns were active predators.

<==Accipitriformes [Accipitrimorphae]PB15
    |--+--Sagittariidae [Gypogeranidae, Sagittarii, Sagittarioidea, Serpentariidae, Serpentariides]LZ07
    |  |    |--Sagittarius Hermann 1783JT12, B94 [incl. Gypogeranus Illiger 1811B94, Serpentarius Cuvier 1798B94]
    |  |    |    `--S. serpentariusHK08 [=Serpentarius serpentariusK08]
    |  |    `--Pelargopappus Stejneger 1885M05 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |         |--*P. magnus (Milne-Edwards 1868) (see below for synonymy)M02
    |  |         `--P. schlosseri (Gaillard 1908)M09 [=*Amphiserpentarius schlosseriM02]
    |  `--+--AccipitridaeHK08
    |     `--Pandion Savigny 1809BKB15, B94 [Pandionidae, Pandioninae]
    |          `--P. haliaetus (Linnaeus 1758)WS48 [=Falco haliaetusWS48, Aquila (Pandion) haliaeetaS05]
    |               |--P. h. haliaetusS13
    |               |--P. h. carolinensis (Gmelin 1788) [=Falco carolinensis]S05
    |               |--P. h. cristatus (Vieillot 1816) [=Buteo cristatus]WS48
    |               |--P. h. leucocephalusS13
    |               `--P. h. melvillensis Mathews 1912WS48
    `--Cathartiformes [Cathartae, Cathartoidea]BKB15
         |--Teratornithidae [Teratornithi]FP64
         |    |--Argentavis magnificens Campbell & Tonni 1980AH03
         |    |--Taubatornis campbelli Olson & Alvarenga 2002M09
         |    |--Cathartornis gracilis Miller 1910U93
         |    `--TeratornisC01
         |         |--T. incredibilis Howard 1952U93
         |         `--T. merriami Miller 1901U93
         `--Cathartidae [Vulturidae]BKB15
              |  i. s.: Parasarcoramphus Mourer-Chauviré 2002M05
              |           `--P. milneedwardsi Mourer-Chauviré 2002M09
              |         Diatropornis Oberholser 1899M05 [=Tapinopus Milne-Edwards 1892 (preoc.)M02]
              |           `--*D. ellioti (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=*Tapinopus ellioti]M02
              |         Gypagus papaS18
              |         Catharista urubuS18
              |         Phasmagyps patritus Wetmore 1927M09
              |         Brasilogyps faustoi Alvarenga 1985M09
              |--+--Coragyps Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1853BKB15, B94 [Coragypidae]
              |  |    `--C. atratusBKB15
              |  `--GymnogypsBKB15
              |       |--G. amplusFP64
              |       `--G. californianusBKB15
              `--+--Cathartes Illiger 1811BKB15, B94
                 |    |  i. s.: C. atratusF43
                 |    |         C. californianusS66
                 |    |         C. iotaF43
                 |    |--C. aura (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, L58 [=Vultur auraJ23]
                 |    `--+--C. burrovianusBKB15
                 |       `--C. melambrotusBKB15
                 `--+--Sarcoramphus Duméril 1806BKB15, B94 [Sarcoramphidae]
                    |    |--S. gryphusF43
                    |    |--S. papaBKB15
                    |    `--S. sacra [=S. papa sacra]D81
                    `--Vultur Linnaeus 1758BKB15, B94
                         |--*V. gryphus Linnaeus 1758B94, C04
                         |--V. angolensisG42
                         |--V. fossilis Keferstein 1834M02
                         |--V. harpyja Linnaeus 1758L58
                         |--V. papa Linnaeus 1758L58
                         |--V. percnopterus Linnaeus 1758L58
                         `--V. umbrosus (Cope 1874) [=Cathartes umbrosus]C77

Pelargopappus Stejneger 1885M05 [=Pelargocrex Milne-Edwards 1893M02, Pelargodes Lydekker 1891M02, Pelargopsis Milne-Edwards 1868 non Gloger 1841M02; incl. Amphiserpentarius Gaillard 1908M02, Amynoptilon Cracraft & Rich 1972M02]

*Pelargopappus magnus (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Pelargopsis magnus, *Pelargocrex magnus, *Pelargodes magnus; incl. Serpentarius robustus Milne-Edwards 1870, Amphiserpentarius robustus, *Amynoptilon robustum, Pelargopsis stehlini Gaillard 1908, Pelargodes stehlini, Pelargopappus stehlini, Pelargopsis trouessarti Gaillard 1908, Pelargodes trouessarti, Pelargopappus trouessarti]M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[C01] Cracraft, J. 2001. Avian evolution, Gondwana biogeography and the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 268: 459–469.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F43] Fraser, L. 1843. On the collection of birds brought to England by Mr. Bridges. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 108–121.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Additional measurements of the blood-corpuscles or red particles of Mammalia and birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 190–196.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763–1768.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LZ07] Livezey, B. C., & R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1–95.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[PB15] Prum, R. O., J. S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D. J. Field, J. P. Townsend, E. M. Lemmon & A. R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569–573.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of a specimen of the Californian vulture (Cathartes californianus) recently added to the Society’s collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 366.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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