Whitecap limpet Acmaea mitra, copyright Mary Jo Adams.

Belongs within: Patellogastropoda.

The Acmaeidae are a group of conical limpets found in the North Pacific. Living members of the family have a radula with three pairs of uniform lateral teeth (Nakano & Ozawa 2004). The type species of the family, Acmaea mitra, has a white, nearly smooth shell with a central apex (Knight et al. 1960).

<==Acmaeidae [Acmaeadae]
    |--Niveotectura Habe 1944KC60
    |    `--N. pallida (Gould 1859)NO04
    |--Rhodopetala Dall 1921 [Rhodopetalinae]BR05
    |    `--*R. rosea (Dall 1872)KC60 [=Acmaea roseaBR17, Nacella roseaKC60, Helcion (*R.) roseusKC60]
    |--Marbodeia Chelot 1887 [=Guerangeria Cossmann 1885 non Oehlert 1881]KC60
    |    `--*M. clypeola (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1842) [=Patella clypeola, *Guerangeria clypeola]KC60
    |--Hamptoniella Wenz 1938 [=Hamptonia Haber 1932 (n. n.) non Walcott 1920]KC60
    |    `--*H. hamponensis (Morris & Lycett 1851) [=Umbrella hamptonensis]KC60
    |--Potamacmaea Peile 1922KC60
    |    `--*P. fluviatilis (Blanford 1868) [=Tectura fluviatilis]KC60
    |--Erginus Jeffreys 1877 [Erginini]BR17
    |    `--*E. rubella (Fabricius 1780)BR17 [=Patella rubellaBR17, Lepeta rubellaJ64]
    |--Conorhytis Cossmann 1907KC60
    |    |--*C. squamula (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1863) [=Patella squamula]KC60
    |    `--C. raduloidesKC60
    |--Deslongchampsia M’Coy ex Morris & Lycett 1851KC60
    |    |--*D. appendiculata (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1842) [=Patella appendiculata]KC60
    |    `--D. eugeneiKC60
    |--Atalacmea Iredale 1915P61
    |    |--*A. fragilis (Sowerby 1823)P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--A. multilinea Powell 1934P61
    |--Naccula Iredale 1924KC60
    |    |--N. punctata (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--N. compressa Verco 1906C46
    |--Scurriopsis Gemmellaro 1879KC60
    |    |  i. s.: S. cycloides Tichy 1979TTE93
    |    |--*S. (Scurriopsis) neumayri Gemmellaro 1879KC60
    |    |--S. (Dietrichiella Haber ex Wenz 1938)KC60
    |    |    `--S. (*D.) kindopensis (Dietrich 1914) [=Patella kindopensis]KC60
    |    `--S. (Hennocquia Haber ex Wenz 1938)KC60
    |         `--S. (*H.) hennocquii (Terquem 1855) [=Patella hennocquii]KC60
    |--Asteracmea Oliver 1926P61
    |    |--*A. illibrata (Verco 1906)KC60 [=Helcioniscus illibratusW93, Acmaea (*Asteracmea) illibrataKC60]
    |    |--A. axiaerata Verco 1912C46
    |    |--A. crebristriata Verco 1904C46
    |    |--A. mellila Iredale 1924C46
    |    |--A. roseoradiata Verco 1912C46
    |    |--A. stowae Verco 1906C46
    |    `--A. suteri (Iredale 1915)P61
    |--Notoacmea Iredale 1915P61
    |    |  i. s.: N. alta Oliver 1926W93 [=Conacmea altaC46; incl. C. corrosa Oliver 1926C46, W93]
    |    |         N. conoidea (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)W93
    |    |         N. elongataHS01
    |    |         N. flammea (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)W93
    |    |         N. mayi May 1923C46
    |    |         N. petterdi (Tenison Woods 1876)W93
    |    |         N. scabrilirata Angas 1864C46
    |    |         N. septiformis Quoy & Gaimard 1834C46
    |    |--*N. (Notoacmea) pileopsis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)P61 [=Patelloida pileopsisP61, Acmaea (*N.) pileopsisKC60]
    |    |    |--N. p. pileopsisP61
    |    |    |--N. p. cellanoides Oliver 1926P61
    |    |    |--N. p. sturnus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841)P61
    |    |    `--N. p. subantarctica Oliver 1926P61
    |    |--N. (Conacmea Oliver 1926)P61
    |    |    |--N. (*C.) parviconoidea (Suter 1907)P61 [=Acmaea parviconoideaKC60]
    |    |    `--‘Conacmea’ subundulata Angas 1865C46
    |    |--N. (Parvacmea Iredale 1915)P61
    |    |    |--N. (*P.) daedala (Suter 1907)P61 [=Acmaea daedalaKC60]
    |    |    |--N. (P.) helmsi (Smith 1894)C46, P61
    |    |    |    |--N. h. helmsiP61
    |    |    |    `--N. h. scapha (Suter 1907)P61
    |    |    |--‘Parvacmea’ nukumaruensisC46
    |    |    |--N. (P.) subtilis (Suter 1907)C46, P61
    |    |    `--N. (P.) virescens Oliver 1926C46, P61
    |    |--N. (Subacmea Oliver 1926)P61
    |    |    |--N. (*S.) scopulina Oliver 1926P61 [=Acmaea (*S.) scopulinaKC60]
    |    |    `--N. (S.) corrodenda (May 1920)W93, C46, W93 [=Subacmea corrodendaC46]
    |    `--N. (Thalassacmea Oliver 1926)P61
    |         `--N. (*T.) badia Oliver 1926P61 [=Acmaea (*T.) badiaKC60]
    |--Acmaea Eschscholtz 1833 [Acmaeinae]BR05
    |    |  i. s.: A. alveusO27
    |    |         A. atrataC64
    |    |         A. costata (Sowerby 1839) [=Lottia costata]H09
    |    |         A. dorsuosa Gould 1859C64
    |    |         A. fascicularisC64
    |    |         A. fenestrataS59
    |    |           |--A. f. fenestrataS59
    |    |           `--A. f. cribrariaS59
    |    |         A. filosaC64
    |    |         A. helmsi Smith 1894H15
    |    |         A. mamillata [=Patella mamillata]C64
    |    |         A. marcusi Righi 1966AH96
    |    |         A. marmorata Tenison Woods 1876TW76
    |    |         A. mitellaC64
    |    |         A. monswoodensis Etheridge 1904F71
    |    |         A. sieboldiC64
    |    |         A. spectrumO27
    |    |         A. subrotundataC64
    |    |         A. subrugosa d’Orbigny 1841AH96
    |    |         A. testudinalisC63
    |    |         A. vernicosaC64
    |    |         A. virginea (Müller 1776)AH96
    |    |--A. (Acmaea)BR17
    |    |    |--*A. (A.) mitra Eschscholtz 1833BR17
    |    |    |    |--A. m. mitraO27
    |    |    |    `--A. m. funiculata Carpenter 1864O27
    |    |    `--A. (A.) discors [=Patella (Acmaea) discors]C64
    |    |--A. (Conoidacmaea Habe 1944)KC60
    |    |    `--A. (*C.) heroldi (Dunker 1861) [=Patella heroldi]KC60
    |    |--A. (Kikukozara Habe 1944)KC60
    |    |    `--A. (*K.) langfordi (Habe 1944) [=Collisella (*K.) langfordi]KC60
    |    `--A. (Nomaeopelta) mesoleucaEO64
    `--Collisella Dall 1871W93, O27
         |--C. pelta (Eschscholtz 1833)KC60 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--C. p. peltaO27
         |    |--C. ‘cassis’ nacelloides Dall 1871 [=C. pelta nacelloides, Acmaea (Collisella) cassis nacelloides]O27
         |    `--C. ‘cassis’ olympica (Dall 1914) [=Acmaea (Collisella) cassis olympica]O27
         |--C. apicina (Dall 1879) [=Acmaea (Collisella) apicina]O27
         |--C. asmi (Middendorff 1849)O27 [=Patella (Acmaea) asmiC64]
         |--C. depicta (Hinds 1842) [=Patelloida depicta, Acmaea (Collisella) depicta]O27
         |--C. digitalis (Eschscholtz 1833) [=Acmaea (Collisella) digitalis]O27
         |    |--C. d. digitalisO27
         |    |--C. d. textilis (Gould 1846)O27 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--C. d. umbonata (Reeve 1855) [=Acmaea (Collisella) digitalis umbonata]O27
         |--C. incessa (Hinds 1842) [=Patella incessa, Acmaea (Collisella) incessa]O27
         |--C. instabilis (Gould 1846)O27 [=Patella (Nacella) instabilisO27, C64, Acmaea (Collisella) instabilisO27]
         |--C. limatula (Carpenter 1864) [=Acmaea scabra limatula]O27
         |    |--C. l. limatulaO27
         |    `--C. l. moerchii (Dall 1878) [=Acmaea (Collisella) limatula moerchii]O27
         |--C. mixta (Reeve 1855)W93
         |--C. onychitis (Menke 1843)W93
         |--C. paleacea (Gould 1851) [=Acmaea (Collisella) paleacea]O27
         |--C. peramabilis (Dall 1872) [=Acmaea (Collisella) peramabilis]O27
         |--C. persona (Eschscholtz 1833) [=Acmaea (Collisella) persona]O27
         |    |--C. p. personaO27
         |    `--C. p. strigillata (Carpenter 1866) [=Acmaea (Collisella) strigillata; incl. A. strigatella]O27
         |--C. rosacea (Carpenter 1866) [=Acmaea (Collisella) rosacea]O27
         |--C. scabra (Gould 1846)O27 [=Patella scabraO27, Acmaea (Collisella) scabraO27, P. (Tectura) scabraC64]
         |--C. scutum (Eschscholtz 1833) [=Acmaea (Collisella) scutum]O27
         |    |--C. s. scutumO27
         |    |--C. s. cribraria (Carpenter 1866) [=Acmaea (Collisella) scutum cribraria]O27
         |    |--C. s. ochracea (Dall 1871) [=Acmaea (Collisella) scutum ochracea]O27
         |    |--C. s. patina (Eschscholtz 1833)O27 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--C. s. pintadina (Gould 1846)O27 [=Acmaea patina var. pintadinaC64, Lottia (Tectura) pintadinaC64]
         |--C. septiformis (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)W93
         |--C. sybaritica (Dall 1871) [=Acmaea (Collisella) sybaritica]O27
         `--C. triangularis (Carpenter 1866) [=Nacella triangularis, Acmaea (Collisella) triangularis]O27

*Atalacmea fragilis (Sowerby 1823)P61 [=Patella fragilisP61, Acmaea (*Atalacmea) fragilisKC60; incl. P. unguisalmae Lesson 1830F27]

Collisella digitalis textilis (Gould 1846)O27 [=Patella (Tectura) textilisC64, Acmaea (Collisella) digitalis textilisO27; incl. P. (Acmaea) aeruginosa Middendorff 1847C64]

Collisella pelta (Eschscholtz 1833)KC60 [=Acmaea (Collisella) cassis peltaO27; incl. A. cassis Eschscholtz 1833W93, O27, *Collisella cassisW93, Patella cinisC64, P. (Tectura) fimbriataC64, P. nuttallianaC64, P. (Acmaea) pileolus Middendorff 1847C64]

Collisella scutum patina (Eschscholtz 1833)O27 [=Acmaea (Collisella) scutum patinaO27, Lottia patinaC64; incl. Patella (Acmaea) ancyloides Middendorff 1847 non Forbes 1840C64, A. patina var. monticolaC64]

Naccula punctata (Quoy & Gaimard 1834)KC60 [=Patelloida punctataKC60, Acmaea (Naccula) punctataKC60; incl. Nacella parva Angas 1876KC60, W93, *Naccula parvaKC60]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AH96] Angerer, G., & G. Haszprunar. 1996. Anatomy and affinities of lepetid limpets (Patellogastropoda=Docoglossa). In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 171–175. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C63] Clarke, A. H., Jr. 1963. Supplementary notes on pre-Columbian Littorina littorea in Nova Scotia. Nautilus 77 (1): 8–11.

[C46] Cotton, B. C. 1946. Australian limpets of the family Lottiidae. South Australian Naturalist 23 (4): 14–16, pl.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[NO04] Nakano, T., & T. Ozawa. 2004. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of limpets of the order Patellogastropoda based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 31–41.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S59] Stohler, R. 1959. Range extensions of some west N. A. marines. Nautilus 72 (4): 127–130.

[TW76] Tenison Woods, J. E. 1876. Description of new Tasmanian shells. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1875: 134–162.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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