Acontiinae

Pale shoulder Acontia lucida, copyright Hectonichus.

Belongs within: Noctuidae.

The Acontiinae are a group of relatively small noctuid moths that may resemble bird droppings when perched. The sacculus of the male genitalia often bears a heavily sclerotised, asymmetrical dorsal crest (Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005).

Characters (from Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005): Moths relatively small; scaphium often membranous, with one or two areas of hair-like setae; valves broadest medially or subapically; sacculus, and processes of sacculus, more or less asymmetrical, most often with a sclerotised dorsal crest or lobe; clasper asymmetrical; ampulla asymmetrical; medial part of transtilla short; aedeagus short with ductus ejaculatorius wide; tympanum with alula enlarged and forming a flap partially covering tympanic opening; tympanum with hood reduced or absent; larvae with 2 SV setae on A1.

Acontiinae [Acontidae]
|--Acontiini [Acontidi]ZK11
| |--Acontia Ochsenheimer 1816FL05
| | |--A. cleranaMC13
| | |--A. crocataMC13
| | |--A. lucidaZK11
| | |--A. maculosaWM66
| | |--A. sollemnis Hacker & Holloway in Hacker et al. 2008JG19
| | `--A. undulosa [=Philenora undulosa]M86
| |--Emmelia Hübner 1821 [Emmelidi]FL05
| | `--E. trabealis (Scopoli 1763)JP05
| |--Agrophila Boisduval 1840 [Agrophilidae]FL05
| | `--A. trabealisP01
| `--Tarache Hübner 1823 [Tarachini]FL05
|--HypercalymniiniFL05
| |--Hypercalymnia Hampson 1910FL05
| |--Paracaroides Kenrick 1917FL05
| |--Procrateria Hampson 1905FL05
| |--Pseudelaeodes Viette 1965FL05
| `--Eutelephia Hampson 1926FL05
`--ArmadiniFL05
|--EpharmottomenaFL05
|--DrasteriodesFL05
|--MetopistisFL05
`--Armada Staudinger 1884FL05

Acontiinae incertae sedis:
Enispa plutonisNC91
AmynaNC91
|--A. crocosticta Hampson 1910JG19
|--A. insularumPP72
`--A. natalisNC91
Cophanta Walker 1864 [incl. Toxophleps Hampson 1893]S01
|--C. funestalis Walker 1864S01
|--C. optiva (Swinh. 1890) [=Tarache optiva, Toxophleps optiva]S01
`--C. trilatalis [=Toxophleps trilatalis]S01
XanthopteraS01
|--X. nicea Swinhoe 1901S01
`--X. rectivitta (Moore 1881) [=Orthosia rectivitta, Polydesma rectivitta]S01
CeryneaS01
|--C. morma Swinhoe 1901S01
`--C. semiluxS01
OruzaS01
|--O. astona Swinhoe 1901S01
`--O. hydrocampataS01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FL05] Fibiger, M., & J. D. Lafontaine. 2005. A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Esperiana 11: 7–92.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 687–802.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[S01] Swinhoe, C. 1901. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 463–473.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

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