Actinoceratida

Reconstruction of Gonioceras, from Palaeos.com.

Belongs within: Orthoceratia.
Contains: Armenoceras, Actinoceras, Ormoceras.

The Middle Ordovician to Upper Carboniferous Actinoceratida are a mostly straight-shelled group of (occassionally quite large) cephalopods characterised by a distinctive siphuncle structure. The siphuncle was largely filled by mineralised deposits except for a thin tube down the centre, with small radial canals connecting the central hollow and a thin space separating the deposits and the outer wall of the siphuncle. In life, the central tube and radial canals would have presumably held living tissue.

The ormoceratid lineage of actinocerid cephalopods (including the families Ormoceratidae [paraphyletic] and Carbactinoceratidae) lived from the Middle Ordovician to the Upper Carboniferous.

Characters (from Teichert 1964): Mostly orthoconic conchs with broad siphuncle containing calcareous deposits; radial canals connecting central canal and thin perispatium; septal necks short, recurved. Cameral deposits present in many species.

Actinoceratida (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Calhounoceras Troedsson 1926T64
    |           `--*C. candelabrum Troedsson 1926T64
    |         Hopeioceras Shimizu & Obata 1936 (n. d.)T64
    |           `--*H. shihlingense Shimizu & Obata 1936T64
    |         Subtofangoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936 (n. d.)T64
    |           `--*S. liaotungense (Endo 1932) (n. d.) [=Sactoceras liaotungense]T64
    |--WutinoceratidaeK93
    |    |--Adamsoceras Flower 1957K93, T64
    |    |    `--A. holmiKE19
    |    |--Cyrtonybyoceras Teichert 1933K93, T64
    |    |    `--*C. haesitans (Billings 1857) [=Orthoceras haesitans]T64
    |    `--Wutinoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936T64
    |         |--W. aigawaense (Endo 1932)K93
    |         `--W. exortivumD82
    |--Georgina [Georginidae]K93
    |    |--G. andersonorum Wade 1977K93
    |    |--G. beuteli Wade 1977K93
    |    |--G. dwyeri Wade 1977K93
    |    |--G. kongurensis Chen & Wang 1983K93
    |    |--G. linda Wade 1977K93
    |    `--G. taylori Wade 1977K93
    |--PolydesmiidaeT64
    |    |--Ordosoceras Chang 1959T64
    |    |    |--*O. sphaeriforme Chang 1959T64
    |    |    |    |--O. s. sphaeriformeT64
    |    |    |    `--O. s. otoktiensisT64
    |    |    `--O. contractum Chen 1976K93
    |    `--Polydesmia Lorenz 1906 (see below for synonymy)T64
    |         |--*P. canaliculata Lorenz 1906T64
    |         |--P. elegans (Endo 1932)K93
    |         |--P. peshanense Kobayashi 1940K93
    |         |--P. shimamurai Kobayashi 1940K93
    |         |--P. watanabei Kobayashi 1940K93
    |         `--P. zuezshanensisT64
    |--Huroniidae [Besselsoceratinae, Gigantei]T64
    |    |--Climacoceras wuyangshanense Chen 1976K93
    |    |--Huroniella Foerste 1924 [incl. Besselsoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935]T64
    |    |    |--*H. inflecta (Parks 1915) [=Huronia inflecta]T64
    |    |    `--H. persiphonataT64
    |    |--Discoactinoceras Kobayashi 1927 [=Discoactionoceras (l. c.)]T64
    |    |    |--*D. multiplexum Kobayashi 1927T64
    |    |    |--D. platyventrum Chen & Liu 1976K93
    |    |    `--D. wuyangshanense Chen & Liu 1976K93
    |    `--Huronia Stokes 1824T64
    |         |--*H. bigsbyi Stokes 1824T64, K93 [=H. bigsbeiT64]
    |         |--H. gaspensis Foerste 1936P68
    |         |--H. minuensT64
    |         |--H. occidentale Foerste 1928P68
    |         |--H. paulodilata Foerste 1925K93
    |         `--H. vertebralis Stokes 1824K93
    |--GonioceratidaeT64
    |    |--Hoeloceras Sweet 1958T64
    |    |    `--H. yimengshanense Chen & Liu 1976K93
    |    |--Gonioceras Hall 1847T64
    |    |    |--*G. anceps Hall 1847T64
    |    |    |--G. chazienseP68
    |    |    |--G. groenlandicumT64
    |    |    |--G. holtedahliT64
    |    |    |--G. occidentaleP68
    |    |    `--G. wulffiT64
    |    `--Lambeoceras Foerste 1917T64
    |         |--*L. lambii (Whiteaves 1891) [=Gonioceras lambii, G. lambei, Tripteroceras (*Lambeoceras) lambii]T64
    |         |--L. acutilaterale Foerste 1935P68
    |         |--L. baffinense Miller, Youngquist & Collinson 1954P68
    |         |--L. confertumP68
    |         |--L. landerense Foerste 1935P68
    |         |--L. princepsT64
    |         `--L. richmondense Foerste 1935K93 [=Tripteroceras (Lambeoceras) richmondensisP68]
    |--Armenoceratidae [Nybyoceratinae]T64
    |    |  i. s.: Stolbovoceras Balashov 1962T64
    |    |           `--*S. boreale Balashov 1962T64
    |    |--+--ArmenocerasT64
    |    |  `--+--Monocyrtoceras Foerste 1924T64
    |    |     |    `--*M. lentidilatatum Foerste 1924T64
    |    |     `--Elrodoceras Foerste 1924T64
    |    |          |--*E. indianense (Miller 1892) [=Cyrtoceras indianense]T64
    |    |          |--E. abnormeT64
    |    |          |--E. cedarvillense Foerste 1928P68
    |    |          |--E. osmanense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |    |          `--E. telleri Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |    `--+--Selkirkoceras Foerste 1929T64
    |       |    |--*S. cuneatum Foerste 1929T64
    |       |    `--S. tyndallenseT64
    |       |--Nybyoceras Troedsson 1926 (see below for synonymy)T64
    |       |    |--*N. bekkeri (Troedsson 1926) [=Actinoceras (*Nybyoceras) bekkeri]T64
    |       |    |--N. foerstei Endo 1930P68
    |       |    `--N. ulrichi Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |       `--Megadisocosorus Foerste 1925T64
    |            `--*M. crassisegmentatus Foerste 1925T64
    |                 |--M. c. crassisegmentatusT64
    |                 `--M. c. orientalisT64
    |--Actinoceratidae [Ellinocerataceae, Ellinoceratidae, Floweroceratidae]T64
    |    |  i. s.: Ellinoceras Balashov 1960T64
    |    |           `--*E. septicurvatum Balashov 1960T64
    |    |         Metactinoceras Zhuravleva 1957T64
    |    |           `--M. boreale Balashov 1962K93
    |    |--ActinocerasT64
    |    |--Troostoceras Foerste & Teichert 1930T64
    |    |    `--*T. paulocurvatum Foerste & Teichert 1930T64
    |    |         |--T. p. paulocurvatumP68
    |    |         `--T. p. abbreviatum Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |    |--Paractinoceras Hyatt in Zittel 1900T64
    |    |    |--*P. canadense (Whiteaves 1892) [=Sactoceras canadense]T64
    |    |    |--P. lamellosumP68
    |    |    `--P. pusillum Ruedemann 1926P68
    |    |--Leurorthoceras Foerste 1921T64
    |    |    |--*L. hanseni Foerste 1921T64
    |    |    |--L. altopontense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |    |    |--L. baffinenseP68
    |    |    `--L. lebanonense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
    |    `--+--Saffordoceras Foerste & Teichert 1930T64
    |       |    `--*S. nelsoni Foerste & Teichert 1930T64
    |       `--+--Floweroceras Miller & Youngquist 1947T64
    |          |    `--*F. boreale Miller & Youngquist 1947T64
    |          `--Kochoceras Troedsson 1926 [incl. Nothoceras Eichwald 1860 non Barrande 1856]T64
    |               |--*K. cuneiforme Troedsson 1926T64
    |               |--K. ellipticumT64
    |               `--K. grande Foerste 1935P68
    `--Ormoceratidae [Deiroceratidae, Eskimoceratidae, Sactoceratidae, Troedssonoceratidae]T64
         |  i. s.: Eskimoceras Troedsson 1936T64
         |           `--*E. boreale Troedsson 1936T64
         |         Mstikhinoceras Shimanskiy 1961T64
         |           `--*M. mirabile Shimanskiy 1961T64
         |--Orthonybyoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935 (see below for synonymy)T64
         |    |--*O. covingtonense (Foerste & Teichert 1930) [=Ormoceras covingtonense]T64
         |    |--O. cannonenseT64
         |    |--O. dyeriKE19
         |    |--‘Orthoceras (Euorthoceras)’ hanoverense Foerste 1889P68
         |    |--‘Orthoceras (Euorthoceras)’ ignotumP68
         |    `--‘Orthoceras (Euorthoceras)’ rectum [incl. O. r. var. junior Foerste 1890, O. r. var. junius]P68
         `--+--Parormoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935T64
            |    `--*P. nanum (Brabau 1922) [=Actinoceras nanum]T64
            `--+--+--Troedssonoceras Foerste 1928 [=Troendssonoceras (l. c.)]T64
               |  |    |--*T. turbidum (Hall & Whitfield 1875) [=Orthoceras turbidum]T64
               |  |    `--T. baileyi Flower 1939T64
               |  `--+--OrmocerasT64
               |     `--Metarmenoceras Flower 1940T64
               |          `--*M. bilaterale Flower 1940T64
               `--Deiroceras Hyatt 1884T64
                    |-*D. python (Billings 1857)T64 [=Orthoceras pythonT64, Actinoceras (Deiroceras) pythonH84]
                    |--D. capitolense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
                    |--D. crassiventre [=Orthoceras crassiventre, Actinoceras (Deiroceras) crassiventre]H84
                    |--D. curdsvillense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
                    |--D. dismukesense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
                    |--D. nashvillense Foerste & Teichert 1930P68
                    |--D. remotiseptumT64
                    `--D. richteri Foerste & Teichert 1930P68

Actinoceratida [Actinoceracea, Actinoceratina, Actinoceratoidea, Actinocerida, Actinoceroida, Actinoceroidea, Actinosiphitae, Annulosiphonata, Cochleati]

Nybyoceras Troedsson 1926 [incl. Jeholoceras Kobayashi & Matsumoto 1942, Pararmenoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936]T64

Orthonybyoceras Shimizu & Obata 1935 [incl. Euhuronia Shimizu & Obata 1936, Euormoceras Shimizu & Obata 1936, Euorthoceras Foerste 1893, Siberioceras Zhuravleva 1957, Treptoceras Flower 1942]T64

Polydesmia Lorenz 1906 non Boud. 1885 (ICBN) [incl. Maruyamaceras Kobayashi 1931, Maruyamacerina Kobayashi 1936, Murayamaceras (l. c.)]T64

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D82] Dong D.-Y. 1982. Lower Ordovician stromatoporoids of northern Anhui. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (5): 577–583.

[H84] Hyatt, A. 1883–1884. Genera of fossil cephalopods. Boston Soc. Nat. History, Proc. 22: 253–338.

[K93] King, A. H. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Nautiloidea). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 169–188. Chapman & Hall: London.

[KE19] King, A. H., & D. H. Evans. 2019. High-level classification of the nautiloid cephalopods: a proposal for the revision of the Treatise Part K. Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 138: 65–85.

[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the type specimens of invertebrate fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 262: 1–198.

[T64] Teichert, C. 1964. Actinoceratoidea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt K. Mollusca 3. CephalopodaGeneral FeaturesEndoceratoideaActinoceratoideaNautiloideaBactritoidea pp. K190–K216. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

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