Actinopteri

Reconstruction of Birgeria, copyright DiBgd.
Belongs within: Actinopterygii.
Contains: Neopterygii, Palaeonisciformes, Acipenseriformes.

The Actinopteri are a clade of fishes including all modern ray-finned fishes with the exception of the bichirs of the Polypteridae. Members of this clade have the premaxilla confined to a region anterior to the orbit, parasphenoid teeth absent, and proximal radials of the dorsal fin substantially enlarged relative to the middle radials (Giles et al. 2017).

<==Actinopteri XG11
|–+–Neopterygii XG11
|  `–+–Palaeonisciformes GX17
|     `–Acipenserifomes GX17
`–+–Brachydegma [Brachydegmidae] GX17
|    `–B. caelatum Dunkle 1939 G93
`–Birgeriidae G93
|–Psilichthys selwyni Hall 1900 G93
`–Birgeria Stensiö 1919 GX17, G93
`–B. groenlandica GX17

Actinopteri incertae sedis:
Willomorichthyidae [Rhabdolepididae] G93
|–Willomorichthys striatulus Gardiner 1969 G93
|–Rhabdolepis macropterus (Bronn 1829) G93
|–Tienshaniscus longipterus Lui & Wang 1978 G93
|–Sinoniscus macrolepis Lui & Wang 1978 G93
`–Bendenius Traquair 1878 G93
`–B. deneensis (Traquair 1878) G93
Phanerorhynchus [Phanerorhynchidae, Phanerorhynchiformes] G93
`–P. armatus Gill 1923 G93
Holuridae G93
|–Holurus parki Traquair 1881 G93
|–Australichthys longidorsalis Gardiner 1969 G93
|–Holuropsis yavorskyi Berg 1947 G93
`–Palaeonisconotus G93
Atherstoniidae G93
|–Aestuarichthys fulcratus Gardiner 1969 G93
`–Atherstonia Woodward 1889 G93
`–A. australis Woodward 1902 F71
Dwykia [Dwykiidae] G93
`–D. analensis Gardiner 1969 G93
Phanerosteon [Carbovelidae] G93
`–P. mirabile Traquair 1881 G93
Strepheoschemidae G93
|–Strepheoschema fouldenensis White 1927 G93
`–Aetheretmon valentiacum White 1927 G93
Cornuboniscus [Cornuboniscidae] G93
`–C. budensis White 1939 G93
Amblypteridae G93
|–Paramblypterus decorus (Egerton 1850) G93
|–Amblypterus Agassiz 1833 G93
|–Amblypterina Berg 1940 G93
|–Gardinerichthys tewarii Gupta et al. 1978 G93
`–Korutichthys korutensis Kazantseva 1980 G93
Haplolepididae G93
|–Haplolepis Miller 1892 G93
`–Pyritocephalus sculptus Fric 1894 G93
Tarrasius [Tarrasiidae, Tarrasiiformes] G93
`–T. problematicus Traquair 1881 G93
Aeduelliidae G93
|–Aeduella blainvillei (Agassiz 1833) G93
|–Westollia crassus (Pholig 1892) G93
|–Igornella Heyler 1969 G93
|–Decazella Heyler 1969 G93
|–Burbonella Heyler 1969 G93
`–Palaeothrissum Blainville 1818 G93
Cryphiolepis [Cryphiolepididae] G93
`–C. striatus (Traquair 1881) G93
Urosthenes [Urosthenidae] G93
|–U. australis Dana 1848 G93
`–U. latus Woodward 1931 G93
Lawnia [Lawniidae] G93
`–L. taylorensis Wilson 1953 G93
Trissolepididae G93
|–Sceletophorus biserialis Frič 1894 G93
`–Sphaerolepis kounoviensis Frič 1877 G93
Commentrya [Commentryidae] G93
`–C. traquairi Sauvage 1888 G93
Dorypterus [Dorypteridae, Dorypteriformes, Dorypteroidei] G93
|–D. althausi (Münster 1842) G93
`–D. hoffmanni Germar 1842 G93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G93] Gardiner, B. G. 1993. Osteichthyes: basal actinopterygians. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 611–619. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GX17] Giles, S., G.-H. Xu, T. J. Near & M. Friedman. 2017. Early members of ‘living fossil’ lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes. Nature 549: 265–268.

[XG11] Xu, G.-H. & K.-Q. Gao. 2011. A new scanilepiform from the Lower Triassic of northern Gansu Province, China, and phylogenetic relationships of non-teleostean Actinopterygii. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 595–612.

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