Actinopterygii

Cheirolepis canadensis, from Parc national de Miguasha.

Belongs within: Gnathostomata.
Contains: Elonichthyiformes, Amphicentridae, Scanilepiformes, Actinopteri.

The Actinopterygii contain the ray-finned fishes in which the external fin is mostly composed of a ray-supported membrane. However, some basal members of this group (such as the modern Polypteridae) retain lobate pectoral fins. Basal ray-finned fishes (including the living Polypteriformes, Acipenseriformes and Holostei) have a covering of bony ganoid scales, often diamond-shaped and non-overlapping. Many fossil examples of these heavily armoured fishes have previously been classified in the Palaeoniscimorpha, now recognised as paraphyletic to more derived actinopteygians. The basalmost actinopterygians include the Devonian Cheirolepiformes which retained an appearance similar to related basal fishes in the Sarcopterygii and Acanthodii. The Saurichthyidae were long-bodied, long-jawed predatory fishes known from the late Permian to the mid-Jurassic.

Synapomorphies (from Xu & Gao 2011): Extrascapular paired; single pair only of nasal bones; squamosal absent; dentary with enclosed mandibular canal; presupracleithrum present; caudal fin heterocercal, upper caudal fin rays short.

<==Actinopterygii [Palaeoniscimorpha]
    |--Meemannia Zhu, Yu et al. 2006GX17, ZY06
    |    `--*M. eos Zhu, Yu et al. 2006ZY06
    `--+--CheirolepiformesTT05
       |    |--Samarichthys [Karaunguriidae]TT05
       |    |    `--S. luxus Minikh 1990TT05
       |    |--Boreolepis [Boreolepedidae]TT05
       |    |    |--B. jenseni Aldinger 1937G93
       |    |    `--B. tataricus Esin 1996TT05
       |    `--Cheirolepis Agassiz 1835XG11, P99 [Cheirolepidae]
       |         |--C. trailli Agassiz 1835GX17, CDZ93
       |         `--+--C. canadensis Whiteaves 1881GX17, CDZ93
       |            `--C. schultzeiGX17
       `--+--+--Osorioichthys [Osorioichthyidae]GX17
          |  |    `--O. marginis (Casier 1952)G93
          |  `--Tegeolepis [Tegeolepididae]GX17
          |       `--T. clarki (Newberry 1888)G93
          `--+--+--MimipiscisGX17
             |  |    |--M. toombsiGX17
             |  |    `--+--M. bartramiGX17
             |  |       `--Gogosardina coatesiGX17
             |  |--+--Donnrosenia schaefferiGX17
             |  |  `--MimiidaeG93
             |  |       |--Mimia Gardiner & Bartram 1977T99
             |  |       |    `--M. toombsi Gardiner & Bartram 1977G93
             |  |       `--Howqualepis rostridens Long 1988GX17, G93
             |  `--+--Raynerius splendensGX17
             |     `--StegotrachelidaeG93
             |          |--Orvikuina Gross 1953G93
             |          |--Stegotrachelus Woodward & White 1926G93
             |          |    `--S. finlayiGX17
             |          `--Moythomasia Gross 1950GX17, G93 [incl. Aldingeria Gross 1942T99]
             |               |--M. durgaringa Gardiner & Bartram 1977T99
             |               |--M. lineataGX17
             |               |--M. nitida Gross 1953P99
             |               `--M. perforataGX17
             `--+--+--Woodichthys bearsdeniGX17
                |  |--Melanecta anneaeGX17
                |  `--ElonichthyiformesGX17
                `--+--Pholidopleuridae [Pholidopleuriformes]G93
                   |    |--Arctosomus sibiricus Berg 1941G93
                   |    |--Pholidopleurus typus Bronn 1858G93
                   |    |--Australosomus Piveteau 1930GX17, G93
                   |    |    `--A. kochiGX17
                   |    `--Macroaethes Wade 1932G93
                   |         `--M. brookvalei Wade 1932F71
                   `--+--+--AmphicentridaeGX17
                      |  `--+--Fouldenia ischipteraGX17
                      |     `--StyracopteridaeG93
                      |          |--Styracopterus Traquair 1895GX17, C93
                      |          |    `--S. fulcatus Traquair 1890G93
                      |          |--Whiteichthys Moy-Thomas 1942G93
                      |          `--Chichia gracilis Liu & Wang 1978G93
                      `--+--+--ScanilepiformesGX17
                         |  `--ActinopteriGX17
                         `--Saurichthyidae [Belonorhynchidae, Saurichthyiformes]G93
                              |--Belonorhynchus gigas Woodward 1890F71
                              |--Eosaurichthys Liu & Wel 1988G93
                              |--Saurorhynchus brevirostris (Woodward 1895)G93
                              `--Saurichthys Agassiz 1834GX17, G93
                                   |--S. longidens Agassiz 1834D93
                                   |--S. madagascarensisGX17
                                   `--S. parvidensF71
Actinopterygii incertae sedis:
  AmphistichusB02
    |--A. argenteusB02
    |--A. heermanni Girard 1854DS89
    `--A. rhodoterusB78
  Eutrigla gurnardusOC03
  Spectrunculus grandisOC03
  Lepidotus notidanusBO02
  Niwaella delicataT90
  SqualidusT90
    |--S. chankaensisT90
    |    |--S. c. chankaensisT90
    |    `--S. c. biwaeT90
    |--S. gracilisT90
    `--S. japonicusT90
  PseudogobioT90
    |--P. esocinusT90
    `--P. rivularisT90
  Leucopsarion petersiT90
  HemibarbusT90
    |--H. barbusT90
    `--H. longirostrisT90
  Biwa zezeraT90
  Odonthestes bonariensisT90
  Pungtungia herziT90
  Ischikauia steenackeriT90
  Chirolophus nugatorB96
  Haplopagrus guentheriB96
  Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatusB96
  Sicyases sanguinusB96
  Pyrrhulina filamentosaB96
  Xenocharax spilurusB96
  Genyonemus lineatusB96
  Tautagolabrus adspersusB96
  Xererpes fucorumB96
  Mylopharyngodon piceusB96
  SalminusPRB10
    |--S. brevidensPRB10
    `--S. maxillosusB96
  Steindachnerella Eiglemann 1897B78
  Neoclinus blanchardiB78
  Damalichthys vaccaB78
  Pahaerodon furcatusB78
  Apomotis cyanellusD51
  Clevelandia iosCH97
  Lionurus carapinusCH97
  Usclasichthys Heyler 1977P99
    `--*U. macrodens Heyler 1977P99
  Gyrolepis Agassiz 1833P99
  Crinodus lophodonCC98
  Zalembius rosaceusAFL84
  Leptatherina wallaceiMG06
  Eleginus navagaW81
  Horalabiosa joshuaiAJ02
  Sillaginodes punctatusS45
  Limichthys polyactisHS01
  Parika scaberHS01
  Obliquichthys maryannaeHS01
  Grahamina capitoHS01
  Notoclinops segmentatusHS01
  Ruanoho wheroHS01
  Trachylochismus melobesiaHS01
  Hymenophysa curtaUSDI77
  Acanthorutilus handlirschiUSDI77
  Moapa coriaceaUSDI77
  Probarbus jullieniUSDI77
  Plagopterus argentissimusUSDI77
  Brazilichthys macrognathus Cox & Hutchinson 1991WO06
  SargusPP89
    |--S. annularisD56
    |--S. rondeletiiPP89
    |--S. salvianiD56
    `--S. vulgarisD56
  CorvinaPP89
    |--C. chrysoleucaG66
    |--C. nigraPP89
    |--C. ronchusG66
    `--C. vermicularisG66
  Gymnocharacinus bergi Steindachner 1903RGG06
  Gymnetrus banksiiT66
  Meletta libertatisG66
  Plagiogeneion rubiginosusP49
  OxygasterPP07
    |--O. baccailaPP07 [=Chela bacailaPH72]
    `--O. clupeoidesRM72
  Catla catlaPP07
  MystusCS77
    |--M. aorDR72
    |--M. cavasiusPP07
    |--M. gulioCS77
    |--M. seenghalaDR72
    `--M. vittatus (Bloch 1794)KC-L22
  Gadusia chaptraPP07
  PoeciliopsM68
    |--P. formosaM68
    |--P. latipinnaM68
    `--P. sphenopsM68
  Discordichthyidae [Discordichthyiformes]TT05
    |--Discordichthys spinifer (Minikh 1998)TT05
    `--GeryonichthysTT05
         |--G. burchardi Minikh 1998TT05
         `--G. longus Minikh 1998TT05
  Auchenoceros punctatusH01
  Pseudophycis bachusH01
  Austrophycis marginataH01
  Lepidorhynchus denticulatusH01
  Amphichthys cryptocentrus Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837BC01
  Joturus pichardiR86
  Polysteganus caeruleopunctatus Klunzinger 1871S63
  Pneumatophorus grexP61
  MollienisiaF16b
    |--M. latipinnaF15
    `--M. sphenopsF16b
  EupomotisCS77
    |--E. gibbosusCS77
    `--E. holbrookiF15
  Hepatus Gronow 1765 [incl. Teuthis Linnaeus 1766, Theutis]JR10
    |--H. bahianusF15
    |--H. celebicusJR10
    |--H. coeruleusF16b
    |--H. elongatusJR10
    |--H. hepatusF15
    |--H. matoidesJR10
    `--H. olivaceusJR10
  Glaridichthys uninotatusF15
  VomerF16b
    |--V. setapinnisF16b
    `--V. spixiiF15
  BathystomaF16b
    |--B. rimatorF15
    `--B. striatumF16b
  Priapichthys annectensF15
  Coptostomobarbus vitteiCS77
  Lophopsetta maculataF16a
  Pygosteus pungitiusF16a
  Lasiancistrus guacharote [=Ancistrus guacharote; incl. A. trinitatis Regan 1906]F16b
  Odontostilbe pulcher (Gill 1858) [=Poecilurichthys pulcher, Chirodon pulcher]F16b
  Stevardia altipinnis Gill 1858 (see below for synonymy)F16b
  Hoploerythrinus unitaeniatus [=Erythrinus unitaeniatus; incl. E. cinereus Gill 1858]F16b
  Seserinus paruF16b
  Petrometopon cruentatusF16b
    |--P. c. cruentatusF16b
    `--P. c. coronatus [=Serranus coronatus; incl. Epinephelus guttatus Boulenger 1895]F16b
  Eudulus auriga [=Serranus auriga]F16b
  BrachygenysF16b
    |--B. chrysargyreus (Günther 1859) [=Haemulon chrysargyreum]F16b
    `--B. rimatorF16b
  Corvula subaequalis [incl. C. sanctaeluciae Jordan 1889]F16b
  Philypnus dormitorF16b
  Alphestes chloropterus [incl. Epinephelus afer Boulenger 1895]F16b
  Myriapristis jacobusF16b
  Angelichthys isabelitaF16b
  Colocopus lambdurus Gill 1884JR10
  Prontocanthus sahelalmae Davis 1887 [=Holosteus sahelalmae]P05
  Porocottus allisiSSE10
  Opisthocentrus ocellatusSSE10
  Davidijordania lacertinaSSE10
  Cuneoganthus gerdineriGX17
  Krasnoyarichthys jesseniGX17
  Limnomis delayniGX17
  Novagonatodus kasantsevaeGX17
  Paedocypris progeneticaSBM11
  Vallecillichthys multivertebratumVF21
  Robertichthys riograndensisVF21
  EsomusRS72
    |--E. altus [=E. danrica var. alta]RS72
    `--E. danricusRS72 [=E. danricaPH72]
         |--E. d. danricusRS72
         |--E. d. jabalpurensis Rao & Sharma 1972RS72
         `--E. d. malabaricusRS72
  Amblypharyngodon molaPH72
  Eutroplus suratensisRM72
  Potamalosa novahollandiaeO97
  Amphacanthus hexagonatusO97
  Batrachus trispinosusO97
  Crepidogaster tasmaniensisO97
  Odontesthes bonariensisPRB10
  Cheirodon interruptusPRB10
  Oligosarcus jenynsiiPRB10
  Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg 1887)KC-L22
  Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine 1841)KC-L22
  Platystomatichthys sturio (Kner 1858)KC-L22
  Psalidodon paranae (Eigenmann 1914)KC-L22
  BrycinusKC-L22
    |--B. imberi (Peters 1852)KC-L22
    `--B. nurse (Rüppell 1832)KC-L22
  Plicofollis argyropleuron (Valenciennes 1840)KC-L22
  Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875)KC-L22
  Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821)KC-L22
  Trachydoras paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Ward 1907)KC-L22
  Platysilurus mucosus (Vaillant 1880)KC-L22
  Pethia ticto (Hamilton 1822)KC-L22
  Luciobarbus graellsii (Steindachner 1866)KC-L22
  Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz 1829KC-L22
  Nemapteryx caelata (Valenciennes 1840)KC-L22
  Limnotrissa miodon (Boulenger 1906)KC-L22
  Rocio octofasciata (Regan 1903)KC-L22
  Ratabulus megacephalus (Tanaka 1917)KC-L22
  Aguarunichthys torosus Stewart 1986KC-L22
  Sargodon tomicus [incl. Sphaerodus minimus]D93
  Novaculoides macrolepidotus (Bloch 1791)MM14
  Arcygobius baliurus (Valenciennes 1837)MM14

Stevardia altipinnis Gill 1858 [incl. Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858, C. riisii, Nematopoma searlesii Gill 1858, C. veedoni Gill 1858]F16b

*Type species of generic name indicated

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