Adeloidea

Green longhorns Adela reaumurella, copyright Nick Wood.

Belongs within: Heteroneura.

The Adeloidea are a group of small moths of which larvae include leaf-miners, gall-makers or internal borers of plants. Members include the Adelidae which have the longest antennae relative to body size of any Lepidoptera (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Cecidosidae, known from South Africa, South America and New Zealand, mostly develop as gall-formers on Anacardiaceae though larvae of the basal New Zealand Xanadoses nielseni are miners under smooth tree bark (Hoare & Dugdale 2003). The Prodoxidae of the Americas include species which have a specialised relationship with Yucca species of which they are the exclusive pollinators (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, as Incurvarioidea): Small to very small; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antennae short to markedly longer than fore wing, scape without eye-cap, often with pecten; proboscis long, short or absent, scaled near base; maxillary palps 5-segmented to reduced; labial palps 3-segmented (rarely absent), second segment with lateral bristles; epiphysis usually present; tibial spurs 0-2-4 (rarely 0-2-2); wings usually with microtrichia, hind wing usually with frenulum and pseudofrenular bristles; male often with rows of blunt spines (pectinifers) on valva and with arrow-shaped juxta; female with long vestibulum supported by strong muscle tendons (‘guy wires’) and piercing ovipositor for inserting eggs in plant tissues. Larva apodous or with short prolegs, crochets in transverse rows, anal prolegs and crochets usually absent; leaf-miners later cutting out or forming flattened cases used as portable shelters while leaf-skeletonising or feeding on flowers or for pupation, or gall-makers of internal borers in stems and twigs. Pupa protruded from case at ecdysis.

<==Adeloidea [Incurvarioidea]KP19
    |--HeliozelidaeNC91
    |    |  i. s.: Hoplophanes chlorochrysaNC91
    |    |--Plesiozela Karsholt & Kristensen 2003KK03
    |    |    |--*P. nielseni Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 [=P. obliqua Nielsen ex Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 (n. n.)]KK03
    |    |    `--P. patagonica Karsholt & Kristensen 2003KK03
    |    `--+--Antispila cornifoliellaKK03, WRM02
    |       |--HeliozelaKK03
    |       |    |--H. prodelaNC91
    |       |    `--H. resplendella (Stainton 1851)KK03
    |       `--CoptodiscaKK03
    |            |--C. kalmiellaWRM02
    |            `--C. splendiferellaG17
    `--+--AdelidaeNC91
       |    |  i. s.: ChalceoplaWRM02
       |    |           |--C. cyanellaP27
       |    |           `--C. simpliciellaWRM02
       |    |         AdelitesP92
       |    |--Ceromitia [Nematopogoninae]NC91
       |    |    `--C. iolampraNC91
       |    `--AdelinaeGE05
       |         |--NemophoraC70
       |         |    |--N. degeerellaKP19
       |         |    |--N. sparsellaC91
       |         |    `--N. topaziasC70
       |         `--Adela Latreille 1802L02
       |              |--*A. reaumurella [=Alucita reaumurella]L02
       |              |--A. bellaP27
       |              |--A. degeerellaG20
       |              |--A. kuznetzoviRJ93
       |              |--A. pantherella Guénée 1849E12
       |              |--A. septentrionalisWRM02
       |              |--A. trigraphaWRM02
       |              `--A. viridellaR13
       `--+--CrinopterygidaeNC91
          `--+--Incurvariidae [Incurvariinae]NC91
             |    |  i. s.: ‘Tinea’ monophthalmaNC91
             |    |         ‘Tinea’ nectariaC70
             |    |         ‘Tinea’ phaulopteraC70
             |    |--Perthida glyphopaKK03, SC04
             |    |--Incurvaria masculellaDG03
             |    |--Incurvarites alienellaP92
             |    `--ProphaloniaP92
             `--+--ProdoxidaeNC91
                |    |  i. s.: Greya politellaGE05, WRM02
                |    `--ProdoxinaeGE05
                |         |--ParategeticulaGE05
                |         |--ProdoxusGE05
                |         |    |--P. decipiensEN20
                |         |    `--P. quinquepunctellaWRM02
                |         `--TegeticulaGE05
                |              |--T. albaP27
                |              |--T. cassandraEN20
                |              |--T. corruptrixGE05
                |              |--T. filamentosaRD77
                |              |--T. intermediaGE05
                |              `--T. yuccasellaWRM02
                `--CecidosidaeNC91
                     |--Xanadoses Hoare & Dugdale 2003HD03
                     |    `--*X. nielseni Hoare & Dugdale 2003HD03
                     `--+--+--Ptisanora Meyrick 1913 [incl. Liopseustis Meyrick 1928]HD03
                        |  |    `--*P. trivialis Meyrick 1913 [incl. P. planicola Meyrick 1928]HD03
                        |  `--Scyrotis Meyrick 1909HD03
                        |       |--*S. athleta Meyrick 1909HD03
                        |       |--S. diplopsamma Meyrick 1918HD03
                        |       `--S. granosa Meyrick 1912HD03
                        `--+--Cecidoses Curtis 1835HD03
                           |    `--*C. eremita Curtis 1835HD03
                           |--Eucecidoses Brèthes 1916HD03
                           |    `--*E. minutanus Brèthes 1916HD03
                           |--Oliera Brèthes 1916HD03
                           |    `--*O. argentinana Brèthes 1916HD03
                           `--Dicranoses Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910 [incl. Ridiaschina Brèthes 1916]HD03
                                |--*D. capsulifex Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910HD03
                                `--D. congregatella Brèthes 1916HD03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DG03] Davis, D. R., & P. Gentili. 2003. Andesianidae, a new family of monotrysian moths (Lepidoptera: Andesianoidea) from South America. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 15–26.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HD03] Hoare, R. J. B., & J. S. Dugdale. 2003. Description of the New Zealand incurvarioid Xanadoses nielseni, gen. nov., sp. nov. and placement in Cecidosidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 47–57.

[KK03] Karsholt, O., & N. P. Kristensen. 2003. Plesiozela, gen. nov. from temperate South America: apparent sister-group of the previously known Heliozelidae (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea: Heliozelidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 39–46.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283–292.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

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