Alcidae

 Thick-billed murre Uria lomvia, photographed by Allan & Elaine Wilson.

Belongs within: Charadriiformes.

The Alcidae include the auks, murres (or guillemots) and puffins. Alcids are heavy-bodied marine birds with legs placed far back on the body that use their wings to propel themselves when diving. Members of the family are found in the Arctic and north temperate regions. The puffins of the genus Fratercula have deep bills that become brightly coloured in the breeding season.

<==Alcidae [Alcadae, Alcides, Petralcidae, Phalerididae, Plautidae, Triolidae]
    |--+--+--Ptychoramphus aleuticusBKB15
    |  |  `--Aethia Merrem 1788BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |       |--A. pusillaBKB15
    |  |       `--+--A. psittaculaBKB15
    |  |          `--+--A. cristatella (Pall. 1769)BKB15, S05 [=Alca cristatellaS05, Simorhynchus cristatellusS05]
    |  |             `--A. pygmaeaBKB15
    |  `--+--Cerorhinca Bonaparte 1828BKB15, B94 [Cerorhincidae]
    |     |    `--C. monocerataBKB15
    |     `--Fratercula Brisson 1760BKB15, B94 [incl. Mormon Illiger 1811B94; Fraterculidae, Mormonidae]
    |          |--F. cirrhataBKB15
    |          `--+--F. arctica (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, S05 [=Alca arcticaS05, Mormon arcticusS05]
    |             |    |--F. a. arcticaS05
    |             |    `--F. a. glacialis Steph. 1826 (see below for synonymy)S05
    |             `--F. corniculata (Naumann 1821)BKB15, S05 [=Mormon corniculatusS05]
    `--+--Brachyramphus Brandt 1837BKB15, B94 [Brachyramphidae]
       |    |  i. s.: B. kittlitziiS05
       |    |--B. brevirostrisBKB15
       |    `--+--B. marmoratusBKB15
       |       `--B. perdix (Pallas 1811)BKB15, I92 [=B. marmoratus perdixI92]
       `--+--Cepphus Pallas 1769BKB15, M02 [Cepphidae]
          |    |  i. s.: C. mandtii (Licht. 1822) (see below for synonymy)S05
          |    |         C. storeri Harrison 1977M02
          |    |--C. grylle (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, S05 [=Alca grylleS05, Uria grylleS05]
          |    `--+--C. carboBKB15
          |       `--C. columba Pallas 1826BKB15, S05 [=Pseuduria columbaS05, Uria columbaS05]
          `--+--Synthliboramphus Brandt 1837BKB15, B94 [Synthliboramphidae]
             |    |--+--S. antiquus (Gmelin 1789)BKB15, I92
             |    |  `--S. wumizusume (Temminck 1835)BKB15, I92
             |    `--+--S. craveriBKB15
             |       `--S. hypoleucusBKB15
             `--+--+--Alle Link 1806BKB15, B94 [incl. Plautus Gunnerus 1761 (nom. inv.)B94; Allidae]
                |  |    `--A. alle (Linnaeus 1758)S05 (see below for synonymy)
                |  `--+--Pinguinus Bonnaterre 1791BKB15, M02
                |     |    `--P. impennis Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                |     `--Alca Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [incl. Plautus Brünnich 1772 (nom. rej.) non Gunnerus 1761M02]
                |          `--A. torda Linnaeus 1758M02 [=Utamania tordaS05]
                `--Uria Brisson 1760BKB15, M02 [Uriidae]
                     |--U. aalge (Pontoppidan 1763) [=Colymbus aalge]M02
                     |    |--U. a. aalgeI92
                     |    `--U. a. inornata Salomonsen 1932I92
                     |--U. ausonia Portis 1889M02
                     |--U. lomvia (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)S05
                     |    |--U. l. lomviaS05
                     |    `--U. l. arra (Pallas 1826) [=Cepphus arra, Alca arra, Lomvia arra]S05
                     `--U. troile (Linn. 1761) [=Colymbus troile, Lomvia arra var. troile]S05
                          |--U. t. troileS05
                          `--U. t. lachrymans Valenc. in Choris 1822 [incl. U. ringvia Grant 1898, U. troile var. ringvia]S05
Alcidae incertae sedis:
  Lunda Pallas 1826S05
    `--L. cirrhata (Pallas 1769) [=Alca cirrhata]S05
  NautilornisFP64
  Australca grandisFP64
  Cyclorhynchus Kaup 1829S05
    `--C. psittaculus (Pallas 1760) [=Alca psittacula, Phaleris psittacula]S05
  Hydrotherikornis oregonus Miller 1931R76
  Petralca Mlíkovský 1987 [Petralcinae]M02
    `--*P. austriaca Mlíkovský & Kovar 1987M02, M09
  Ciceronia Reichenbach 1852S05
    `--C. pusilla (Pallas 1826) [=Uria pusilla, Simorhynchus pusillus; incl. Ciceronia microceros Palmén 1883]S05

Aethia Merrem 1788BKB15, B94 [incl. Phaleris Temminck 1820B94, Simorhynchus Merrem 1819B94; Aethiidae, Simorhynchidae]

Alle alle (Linnaeus 1758)S05 [=Alca alleS05, Arctica alleS05, Mergulus alleS05, Plautus alleFP64, Uria alleS05]

Cepphus mandtii (Licht. 1822) [=Uria mandtii, C. grylle var. mandtii, U. grylle var. mandtii; incl. U. grylle f. glacialis Stuxberg 1887]S05

Fratercula arctica glacialis Steph. 1826 [=Fulmarus glacialis non Procellaria glacialis Linnaeus 1761 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.), Mormon glacialis]S05

Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 [=Alca impennisM02, Plautus impennisM02; incl. A. major Brisson 1760 (nom. inv.)M02]

Uria lomvia (Linnaeus 1758) [=Alca lomvia; incl. Lomvia bruennichii Pearson 1896, Alca bruennichii, L. arra bruennichii, Uria bruennichi]S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Fossil marine mammals of Oregon. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 420-436.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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