Aleyrodidae

 Spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus, copyright Sam Fraser-Smith.

Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Aleyrodinae.

The Aleyrodidae, whiteflies, are small plant-sucking bugs with immobile nymphs, some species of which are notorious crop pests. Adults are soft-bodied with reduced wing venation and are usually covered with a white, waxy powder (Carver et al. 1991). The earliest fossil whiteflies are known from Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Adults usually covered with a mealy, flocculent wax, secreted by pairs of large glands on several abdominal sternites, spread over body using combs of hairs on hind legs. Antennae reduced to six or fewer segments; rostrum with four segments, segment two telescoping into segment one. Wing venation extremely reduced. First instar mobile; subsequent instars sedentary, with atrophied appendages; vasiform orifice present at tip of abdomen for expelling honeydew: anus opening into deep median fold in tergite eight, with lingula flicking away droplets forming therein; quiescent prepupal and pupal instars present prior to adulthood.

<==Aleyrodidae [Aleurodidae, Aleyrodina, Aleyrodoidea, Aleyrodomorpha, Scytinelytra]
    |--Heidea Schlee 1970GE05, P92
    |    `--H. cretacicaGE05
    |--Bernaea Schlee 1970P92 [Bernaeidae, BernaeinaeGE05]
    |    `--B. neocomicaGE05
    `--+--SiphonaleyrodinaeS35
       |--AleyrodinaeS35
       |--UdamoselinaeWEE70
       |    |--Udamoselis Enderlein 1909S35
       |    `--Synaleurodicus Solomon 1935WEE70, S35
       |         `--*S. hakeae Solomon 1935S35
       `--AleurodicinaeS35
            |--Radialeurodicus Bondar 1923S35
            `--AleurodicusS35
                 |--A. antillensisSEH96
                 |--A. destructorCGW91 [incl. Aleyrodes albofloccosa (Froggatt 1918)WEE70, S35]
                 |--A. dispersusZS10
                 |--A. dugesii Cockerell 1896ZR96
                 `--A. holmesii (Maskell 1896) [=Aleurodes holmesii]K08
Aleyrodidae incertae sedis:
  DialeurodesS35
    |--D. chittendeniSEH96
    |--D. citriS35
    |--D. citrifoliiSEH96
    |--D. kirkaldyiCGW91
    `--D. pallidusG01
  TrialeurodesS35
    |--T. abutiloneusSEH96
    |--T. ferrnaldiSEH96
    |--T. floridensisSEH96
    |--T. packardiSEH96
    |--T. riciniSEH96
    |--T. vaporariorumS35
    `--T. variabilisSEH96
  Parabemisia myricaeMHG04
  AleuronymphaK-P91
  Aleuroclava eucalyptiCGW91
  Orchamoplatus citriCGW91
  PealiusLS96
    |--P. azaleaeCGW91
    `--P. kelloggiLS96
  AleurothrixusSEH96
    |--A. aepimM99
    |--A. floccosus [incl. A. howardi]SEH96
    |--A. porteriSEH96
    `--A. socialisM99
  AleuroplatusSEH96
    |--A. coronataSEH96
    |--A. elemeraeSEH96
    |--A. gelatinosusSEH96
    `--A. liquidambarisSEH96
  Aleuroglandulus malangaeSEH96
  CrenidorsumSEH96
  Acaudaleyrodes citriSEH96
  AsterobemisiaSEH96
    |--A. carpiniSEH96
    `--A. paveliSEH96
  Bulgarialeurodes cotesiiSEH96
  SiphoninusSEH96
    |--S. immaculatusSEH96
    `--S. phillyreaeSEH96
  AleurocybotusSEH96
    |--A. indicusSEH96
    `--A. occiduusSEH96
  ParaleyrodesSEH96
    |--P. naranjaeSEH96
    `--P. perseaeSEH96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LS96] Liu, T.-X., & P. A. Stansly. 1996. Morphology of Nephaspis oculatus and Delphastus pusillus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), predators of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 292–300.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M99] Moraes, G. J. de. 1999. Pest status of the cassava green mite in Brazil and strategies for its control. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 287–291. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SEH96] Schauff, M. E., G. A. Evans & J. M. Heraty. 1996. A pictorial guide to the species of Encarsia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitic on whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 1–35.

[S35] Solomon, M. E. 1935. On a new genus and two new species of Western Australian Aleyrodidae. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 21: 75–91.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[ZR96] Zolnerowich, G., & M. Rose. 1996. A new species of Entedononecremnus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on the giant whitefly, Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 369–373.

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