Alismatales

 Streaked arrowgrass Triglochin striatum, copyright Tim Rudman.

Belongs within: Lilianae.
Contains: Araceae, Alismataceae, Hydrocharitaceae, Potamogetonales.

The Alismatanae are a clade of monocotyledonous flowering plants supported by molecular data, many of which are aquatic or semi-aquatic. Members of the clade have extrorse anthers (releasing pollen outside the flower) and seeds with a large cotyledon. Representatives include the Tofieldiaceae, small perennials with equitant leaves, racemous inflorescences, and capsular fruits.

<==Alismatales [Alismatanae, Helobieae, Juncagineae, Naiadeae, Najadales, Potameae, Zostereae]
    |--TofieldiaceaeDS04
    |    |--Pleea tenuifoliaDS04
    |    `--TofieldiaSR07
    |         |--T. calyculataDS04
    |         |--T. glutinosa (Michx.) Persoon 1805CD07
    |         |--T. occidentalisH93
    |         |--T. palustrisH44
    |         `--T. pusillaDS04
    `--+--AraceaeSR07
       `--+--AlismataceaeDS04
          `--+--ButomalesHE80
             |    |--HydrocharitaceaeHE80
             |    |--LimnocharisP88 [LimnocharitaceaeW03]
             |    |    |--L. flavaW03
             |    |    `--L. humboldtii [=Hydrocleis humboldtii]B78
             |    `--ButomaceaeDS04
             |         |--Hydrocleys nymphoides (von Humboldt & Bonpland) Buchenau 1868HE80
             |         |--Butomus umbellatusSR07, DS04
             |         `--Butomites cretaceus Velenivsky 1889CBH93
             `--+--ScheuchzeriaceaeDS04
                |    |--Tetroncium magellanicumYY22, CL85
                |    `--Scheuchzeria palustrisSR07, DS04
                |         |--S. p. ssp. palustrisH93
                |         `--S. p. ssp. americanaH93
                `--+--PotamogetonalesDS04
                   `--Juncaginaceae [Juncaginales]DS04
                        |--Lilaea scilloidesH93
                        |--Lamprocarpites nitidus Heer 1882CBH93
                        `--Triglochin Linnaeus 1753DS04, ME70
                             |  i. s.: T. concinnaH93
                             |           |--T. c. var. concinnaH93
                             |           `--T. c. var. debilisH93
                             |         T. maritimaDS04 [incl. T. elatumV72]
                             |         T. palustre Linnaeus 1753ME70
                             |--T. sect. CycnogetonB78
                             |    |--T. maundii [incl. Maundia triglochinoides]B78
                             |    `--T. proceraB78 [incl. Cycnogeton huegeliiB78, T. huegeliiGK00, C. linearisB78, T. linearisB78]
                             |         |--T. p. var. proceraB78
                             |         |--T. p. var. dubia [=T. dubium]B78
                             |         `--T. p. var. eleutherocarpaB78
                             `--T. sect. EutriglochinB78
                                  |--T. centrocarpa [incl. T. minutissima, T. nanum, T. trichophora]B78
                                  |    |--T. c. var. centrocarpaB78
                                  |    `--T. c. var. calcitrapaB78
                                  |--T. mucronataB78
                                  `--T. striatum Ruiz & Pav. 1802B78, ME70 (see below for synonymy)
                                       |--T. s. var. striatumC06
                                       `--T. s. var. filifolium Buch. 1868 [incl. T. triandrum]C06
Alismatales incertae sedis:
  MaundiaceaeAPG16
  PosidoniaS95 [PosidoniaceaeAPG16]
    |--P. angustifoliaK90
    |--P. australisPP64
    |--P. coriaceaK90
    |--P. oceanica [=Caulinia oceanica]B78
    `--P. sinuosaS95
  ZannichelliaceaeHE80
    |--Zannichellia Linnaeus 1753ME70
    |    |--Z. palustris Linnaeus 1753ME70
    |    `--Z. pedunculataCS77
    `--Lepilaena Drum. ex Harv. 1855ME70 [incl. HexathecaB78]
         |--*L. australis Drum. ex Harv. 1855ME70
         |--L. bilocularis Kirk 1896ME70
         |--L. cylindrocarpa [=Zannichellia cylindrocarpa; incl. Hexatheca australis ms]B78
         `--L. preissiiME70 [=Zannichellia preissiiC06]

Triglochin striatum Ruiz & Pav. 1802B78, ME70 [incl. T. decipiensB78, T. flaccidum Cunn. 1837ME70, T. montevidenseB78]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: new southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H44] Hammer, M. 1944. Studies on the oribatids and collemboles of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 141 (3): 1–210.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[S95] Scheltema, A. H. 1995. Falcidens poias, a new species of chaetoderm Aplacophora from Rottnest Island, Western Australia (Chaetodermomorpha, Chaetodermatidae). Molluscan Research 16: 45–49.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[W03] Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10 (1): 477–485.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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