Alliaceae

Garlic Allium sativum, copyright Denes Feri.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.

The Alliaceae are a group of bulbous herbs with flowers typically borne in terminal umbels. Members of the type genus Allium are odoriferous and found mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, though a number of species have become widespread as invasive weeds. Several species, such as the onion Allium cepa and garlic Allium sativum, are cultivated for food.

<==Alliaceae [Allioideae]
|–Nothoscordum Kunth 1843 HE80, CC87
|    |–N. striatum [incl. *N. bivalve (Jacq.) Kunth 1843] CC87
|    |–N. gracile (Aiton) Stearn 1986 (see below for synonymy) CC87
|    `–N. inodorum (Aiton) Nicholson 1855 HE80
`–Allium L. 1753 [Allieae] CC87
|  i. s.: A. abramsii [=A. fimbriatum var. abramsii] H93
|         A. acuminatum H93
|         A. ambiguum C55b
|         A. ammophilum D37
|         A. amplectens H93
|         A. anceps H93
|         A. atrorubens H93
|           |–A. a. var. atrorubens H93
|           `–A. a. var. cristatum [=A. nevadense var. cristatum; incl. A. atrorubens var. inyonis] H93
|         A. bisceptrum H93
|         A. bolanderi H93
|           |–A. b. var. bolanderi H93
|           `–A. b. var. mirabile H93
|         A. burlewii H93
|         A. campanulatum H93
|         A. canadense V72
|         A. carolinianum O88
|         A. cepa [incl. A. salota] CC87
|           |–A. c. var. cepa RG04
|           `–A. c. var. ascalonicum RG04
|         A. cernuum V72
|         A. commutatum PT98
|         A. cratericola [incl. A. tribracteatum var. jacintense] H93
|         A. crispum H93
|         A. cupani Rafinesque 1810 PL04
|           |–A. c. ssp. cupani PT98
|           `–A. c. ssp. hirtovaginatum PT98
|         A. denticulatum H93
|         A. diabloense [=A. fimbriatum var. diabloense] H93
|         A. dichlamydeum H93
|         A. douglasi S72
|         A. falcifolium H93
|         A. fallax C55a
|         A. fasciculatum O88
|         A. fimbriatum H93
|           |–A. f. var. fimbriatum [incl. A. anserinum] H93
|           |–A. f. var. mohavense H93
|           `–A. f. var. purdyi H93
|         A. fistulosum RG04
|         A. flavum PT98
|           |–A. f. ssp. flavum PT98
|           `–A. f. ssp. tauricum PT98
|         A. haematochiton H93
|         A. hickmanii H93
|         A. hoffmanii H93
|         A. howellii H93
|           |–A. h. var. howellii H93
|           |–A. h. var. clokeyi H93
|           `–A. h. var. sanbenitense H93
|         A. hyalinum H93
|         A. hypsistum O88
|         A. jepsonii [=A. sanbornii var. jepsonii] H93
|         A. lacunosum H93
|           |–A. l. var. lacunosum H93
|           |–A. l. var. davisiae H93
|           |–A. l. var. kernensis H93
|           `–A. l. var. micranthum H93
|         A. lemmonii H93
|         A. membranaceum H93
|         A. monticola [incl. A. monticola ssp. keckii] H93
|         A. munzii [=A. fimbriatum var. munzii] H93
|         A. nevadense H93
|         A. obtusum H93
|           |–A. o. var. obtusum H93
|           `–A. o. var. conspicuum H93
|         A. pallens PT98
|         A. parishii H93
|         A. parryi [=A. fimbriatum var. parryi] H93
|         A. parvum H93
|         A. peninsulare H93
|           |–A. p. var. peninsulare H93
|           `–A. p. var. franciscanum H93
|         A. platakisii S98
|         A. platycaule H93
|         A. porrum RG04
|         A. praecox H93
|         A. prattii O88
|         A. przewalskianum O88
|         A. pulchellum BT72
|         A. punctum H93
|         A. sanbornii H93
|           |–A. s. var. sanbornii H93
|           `–A. s. var. congdonii H93
|         A. schoenoprasum RG04
|           |–A. s. var. schoenoprasum RG04
|           |–A. s. var. foliosum RG04
|           `–A. s. var. sibiricum V72
|         A. serra H93
|         A. sharsmithae [=A. fimbriatum var. sharsmithae] H93
|         A. shevockii H93
|         A. sikkimense O88
|         A. sipyleum [incl. A. exile] S98
|         A. siskiyouense [incl. A. falcifolium var. demissum] H93
|         A. sphaerocephalon Linnaeus 1753 PL04
|           |–A. s. ssp. sphaerocephalon PL04
|           `–A. s. ssp. trachypus (Boissier & Spruner) Stearn 1978 PL04
|         A. stellatum V72
|         A. subhirsutum PT98
|         A. tardans S98
|         A. tolmiei H93
|         A. tribracteatum H93
|         A. tricoccum V72
|           |–A. t. var. tricoccum V72
|           `–A. t. var. burdickii V72
|         A. tuberosum RG04
|         A. tuolumnense [=A. sanbornii var. tuolumnense] H93
|         A. unifolium H93
|         A. ursinum F92
|         A. validum H93
|         A. victorialis C55a
|         A. wallichii O88
|         A. yosemitense H93
|–A. sect. Allium [=A. sect. Alliotypus Dumort. 1827] CC87
|    |–*A. sativum L. 1753 [=A. (sect. *Alliotypus) sativum] CC87
|    |–A. ampeloprasum L. 1753 CC87
|    |–A. scorodoprasum L. 1753 CC87 [incl. A. ophioscordon C55b]
|    |    |–A. s. ssp. scorodoprasum CC87
|    |    `–A. s. ssp. rotundum (L.) Stearn 1978 [=A. rotundum L. 1962] CC87
|    `–A. vineale Linnaeus 1753 CC87
|         |–A. v. var. vineale HE80
|         `–A. v. var. compactum HE80
|–A. sect. Briseis (Salisb.) Stearn 1946 [=Briseis Salisb. 1866] CC87
|    `–A. (sect. *B.) triquetrum Linnaeus 1753 CC87
|–A. sect. Codonoprasum Reichb. in Mossler 1827 CC87
|    |–A. (sect. *C.) oleraceum L. 1753 CC87
|    |–A. brulloi Salmeri 1998 S98
|    `–A. paniculatum L. 1759 CC87
|–A. sect. Molium Don ex Koch 1837 CC87
|    |–A. (sect. *M.) roseum Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) CC87
|    `–A. neapolitanum Cirillo 1788 [incl. A. inodorum Aiton 1789] CC87
`–A. sect. Scorodon S98
|–A. chalkii S98
`–A. rhodiacum S98

Allium roseum Linnaeus 1753 [incl. A. roseum var. bulbiferum de Candolle ex Koch 1837, A. roseum ssp. bulbiferum (de Candolle) Warburg 1953] CC87

Nothoscordum gracile (Aiton) Stearn 1986 [=Allium gracile Aiton 1789; incl. A. fragrans Vent. 1801, Nothoscordum fragrans (Vent.) Kunth 1843] CC87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[RG04] Roumagnac, P., L. Gagnevin, L. Gardan, L. Sutra, C. Manceau, E. R. Dickstein, J. B. Jones, P. Rott & O. Pruvost. 2004. Polyphasic characterization of xanthomonads isolated from onion, garlic and Welsh onion (Allium spp.) and their relatedness to different Xanthomonas species. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 15–24.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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