Allothrombiinae

Allothrombium sp., photographed by Jesse Rorabaugh.

Belongs within: Trombidiidae.

The Allothrombiinae are a cosmopolitan group of trombidiid mites characterised by the presence in adults of a brush-like empodium in association with the tarsal claws. The colourful adults include some of the largest known mites (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Thor 1935): Adult large, with strong shoulders, rounded, with bristle-like plumose, rarely branched, setae. Two eyes each side of prosoma on long movable stalks. Crista tripartite, broadened at or behind the middle, pitcher or heart-shaped, with large lateral areoles for the two sensilla. Palpi large, with large tibial claw, without secondary claw or comb. Legs short or medium length, brush-like empodium on tarsus, either a pulvillus between the claws or brush-like bristles adjacent to the claws.

<==AllothrombiinaeWL09
    |--Dinothrombium Oudemans 1910Z94, S94 [incl. Angelothrombium Newell & Tevis 1960F91, Isothrombium André 1949F91]
    |    |--*D. tinctorium (L. 1767) [=Acarus tinctorius]F91
    |    |--D. dugesi (Trouessart 1894) [=Thrombidium dugesi]H07
    |    |--D. magnificumWP99
    |    |--D. oparbellae (André 1949) [=*Isothrombium oparbellae]F91
    |    |--D. pandorae Newell & Tevis 1958Z94 [=*Angelothrombium pandoraeF91]
    |    |--D. purpureum (Koch 1837)S94 [=Trombidium purpureumS94, Camerotrombidium purpureumT36]
    |    `--D. southcotti Fain 1991F91
    `--+--Clinotrombium Southcott 1986Z94, ZF05
       |    |--C. antares Southcott 1986H98
       |    |--C. bellator Southcott 1986H98
       |    |--C. commoni Southcott 1986Z94
       |    `--C. metae (Boshell & Kerr 1942)WY88, M46 [=Allotrombidium metaeM46, Allothrombium metaeWY88]
       `--Allothrombium Berlese 1903Z94, S94 [incl. MesothrombiumW34]
            |--*A. fuliginosum (Hermann 1804) [=Trombidium fuliginosum]SB63
            |--A. aequinoctiale Oudemans 1927O28
            |--A. antipodianum Hirst 1926H98 (see below for synonymy)
            |--‘Trombidium’ aphidisS61
            |--A. chanaanenseCM07
            |--‘Eutrombidium’ corticisWY88
            |--A. cursorium Berlese 1916B16
            |--A. delicatulum Womersley 1934H98
            |--A. epiphyllus Shiba 1976S76
            |--A. gracile Berlese 1910SB63
            |--A. guttatum Hirst 1928 [incl. A. ornatum Hirst 1928, A. guttatum var. ornatum]H98
            |--A. ignotum Willmann 1956M62
            |--A. lerouxi Moss 1960M62
            |--A. meridionale Berlese 1910GF11
            |--A. mitchelliWL09
            |--A. monspessulanumZ91
            |--A. neapolitum Oudemans 1910M62
            |--A. ovatum Zhang & Xin 1992Z94
            |--A. pergrande Berlese 1903SB63
            |--A. pulvinum Ewing 1917M62
            |--A. reckiS76
            |--A. strigosumO28
            |--A. succinctum Berlese 1916B16
            |--A. terraereginae Hirst 1926H98
            |--A. watanabei Shiba 1976S76
            `--A. wyandrae Hirst 1928H98
Allothrombiinae incertae sedis:
  ApithrombiumZ91
  Austrothrombium Womersley 1934WL09, H98
    |--A. australiense (Hirst 1929)H98 [=Allothrombium (Mesothrombium) australienseH98, W34]
    |--A. hirsutum (Womersley 1937) [=Xenothrombium hirsutum]H98
    |--A. insigne (Hirst 1928) [=Allothrombium (Mesothrombium) insigne]W34
    |--A. kondininum (Hirst 1928) (see below for synonymy)H98
    |--A. mullewaense Southcott 1986H98
    |--A. porongorense Southcott 1986H98
    `--A. scaurum Southcott 1986H98
  Corethrothrombium Oudemans 1928T35
  Dolichothrombium Feider 1945SB63
    |--D. alpinum (Schweizer 1951) [=Dinothrombium alpinum]SB63
    |--D. borceaiA91
    `--D. longulum (Willmann 1950) [=Dinothrombium longulum]SB63

Allothrombium antipodianum Hirst 1926H98 [=A. (*Mesothrombium) antipodianumW34; incl. A. (M.) antipodianum var. olorinum Hirst 1926W34, A. antipodianum var. olorinaH98, A. parvulum Hirst 1929H98, A. wasseli Hirst 1931H98]

Austrothrombium kondininum (Hirst 1928)H98 [=Allothrombium antipodianum var. kondininumH98, Al. (Mesothrombium) antipodianum var. kondinium (l. c.)W34, Austrothrombium kondinium (l. c.)H98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A91] Alberti, G. 1991. Spermatology in the Acari: systematic and functional implications. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 77–105. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F91] Fain, A. 1991. Notes on mites parasitic or phoretic on Australian centipedes, spiders and scorpion. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15: 69–82.

[GF11] Gabryś, G., M. Felska, A. Kłosińska, W. Staręga & J. Mąkol. 2011. Harvestmen (Opiliones) as hosts of Parasitengona (Acari: Actinotrichida, Prostigmata) larvae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 349–351.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Hoffmann, A. 2007. Acarology in Mexico: prehispanic to modern times. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 21–26. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M46] Michener, C. D. 1946. The taxonomy and bionomics of some Panamanian trombidiid mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 349–380.

[M62] Moss, W. W. 1962. The immature stages of the red velvet mite Allothrombium lerouxi (Acari: Trombidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 295–303.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T36] Thor, S. 1936. Neue Gattungen in der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814. Zoologischer Anzeiger 114: 29–32.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

[W34] Womersley, H. 1934. A revision of the trombid and erythraeid mites of Australia with descriptions of new genera and species. Records of the South Australian Museum 5 (2): 179–254.

[Z91] Zhang, Z. Q. 1991. Biology of mites of Allothrombiinae (Acari: Trombidiidae) and their potential role in pest control. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 513–520. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

[ZF05] Zhang, Z.-Q., & Q.-H. Fan. 2005. A new genus of Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) from New Zealand. Systematic and Applied Acarology 10: 155–162.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *