Alysiinae

Dacnusa areolaris, copyright J. K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Doryctinae.
Contains: Aspilota.

The Alysiinae are a group of braconid wasps endoparasitic on cyclorrhaphous Diptera. Members of the Alysiinae have exodont mandibles that are straight or curved outwards, with tips not touching when closed, and with three or four (rarely two) teeth or lobes (Achterberg 1993). These mandibles are used by the wasp to break free of the puparium of their host in which they have pupated themselves. The cross-vein r-m is present in the fore wing of members of the tribe Alysiini but not in Dacnusini (Naumann 1991).

<==Alysiinae [Alysiidae, Dacnusinae]P08
    |  i. s.: OenonogastraBS23
    |--Exodontiella [Exodontiellini]A93
    |    `--E. deserticolaA93
    `--AlysiiniA93
         |  i. s.: Gnathopleura ridibundaA93
         |         Hylcalosia maetoiA93
         |         Lodbrokia hirtaA93
         |         HeratemisN91
         |--+--Cratospila neocirceBS23
         |  `--Alysia manducatorBS23, N91
         `--+--+--+--Hoplitalysia slossonaeBS23
            |  |  `--+--Phaenocarpa jaculansBS23, MS01
            |  |     `--+--AsobaraBS23
            |  |        |    |--A. persimilisN91
            |  |        |    `--A. tabidaGJR97
            |  |        `--AphaeretaBS23
            |  |             |--A. aoteaN91
            |  |             `--A. megalopsBS23
            |  `--+--DapsilarthraBS23
            |     `--+--Pentapleura foveolataBS23
            |        `--+--AspilotaBS23
            |           `--+--Orthostigma imperatorBS23, A93
            |              `--Dinotrema Foerster 1862BS23, P08
            |                   `--*D. erythropa Foerster 1862P08
            `--+--SymphyaBS23
               `--DacnusiniA93
                    |  i. s.: Eucoelinidea compressaA93
                    |--+--ChaenusaBS23
                    |  |    |--C. americanaBS23
                    |  |    `--C. quadricepsBS23
                    |  `--ChorebusBS23
                    |       |--C. lanzarotensis Fischer, Tormos et al. 2004F05
                    |       |--C. ophthalmicusA93
                    |       `--C. posticusBS23
                    `--+--DacnusaBS23
                       |    |--D. areolarisMS01
                       |    |--D. erythrogastra Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
                       |    |--D. semirugosaMS01
                       |    |--D. senilisMS01
                       |    `--D. sibiricaPK17
                       `--+--+--EpimictaBS23
                          |  |    |--E. caudata (Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901) [=Dacnusa (Epimicta) caudata]MS01
                          |  |    `--E. griffithsiBS23
                          |  `--ExotelaBS23
                          `--+--Polemochartus liparaeBS23
                             `--CoeliniusBS23
                                  |--C. gracilisMS01
                                  |--C. nigerMS01
                                  `--C. parvulus [=Bracon (Coelinius) parvulus]G20

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439–11444.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P08] Papp, J. 2008. Seven new species of Aspilota Foerster from the Palaearctic region (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Alysiinae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 245–269.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

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