Amblyomma

Cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense, from the US Dept of Health and Health Services.

Belongs within: Ixodida.

Amblyomma is a large genus of ticks including both large, brightly ornamented mammal parasites and smaller, less ornamented parasites of reptiles and amphibians (Keirans 2009). The genus in its current circumscription is supported by molecular analysis though no unique morphological synapomorphies are known. Species of Amblyomma possess a pentagonal basis capituli with short lateral sides, and long palps, though these features are shared with the phylogenetically distinct Australian genus Bothriocroton. Eyeless species have previously been recognised as a distinct genus Aponomma but the loss of eyes has occurred in Amblyomma on more than one occasion (Klompen et al. 2002). The species A. hebraeum and A. variegatum are significant transmitters of heartwater disease in African cattle (Keirans 2009). The lone star tick A. americanum (so called for a single large white spot in the centre of its dorsum) of eastern North America is a vector of ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs.

<==Amblyomma Koch 1844 [incl. Aponomma Neumann 1899; Amblyommini]KDB02
    |--A. albolimbatum Neumann 1906H98
    |--A. americanum (Linnaeus 1758)SH91
    |--A. australiense Neumann 1905H98
    |--A. boeroiSC19
    |--A. cajennenseK09
    |--A. calabyi Roberts 1963H98
    |--A. cyprium Neumann 1899H98
    |--A. darwiniWP99
    |--A. diemeniae Schulze 1950H98
    |--A. dissimile Koch 1844H07
    |--A. echidnae Roberts 1953H98
    |--A. elaphense (Price 1959) [=Aponomma elaphense]KDB02
    |--‘Aponomma’ exornatumL35
    |--A. fimbriatum (Koch 1844)KDB02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Ixodes’ flavomaculatus Lucas 1846 [=Aponomma flavomaculatum; incl. A. pulchrum Roberts 1953]H98
    |--A. gemma (Dönitz 1909)ADG91
    |--A. glauerti Keirans et al. 1994H98
    |--A. hebraeum (Koch 1844)ADG91 [incl. A. hebraeum var. splendidumWN09]
    |    |--A. h. hebraeumJ98
    |    `--A. h. magnum Neumann 1909J98
    |--A. helvolum Koch 1844H98
    |--A. integrumSG72
    |--A. javanense (Supino 1897)SG72
    |--A. latum (Koch 1844) [=Aponomma latum]KDB02
    |--A. lepidum (Dönitz 1909)ADG91
    |--A. limbatum Neumann 1899H98
    |--A. loculosum Neumann 1907H98 [incl. A. sternae Roberts 1953M72]
    |--A. longirostrumWN09
    |--A. macfarlandiS91
    |--A. macropi Roberts 1953H98
    |--A. maculatum Koch 1844SH91
    |--A. moreliae (Koch 1867) [=Ixodes moreliae]H98
    |--A. moyi Roberts 1953H98
    |--A. nitidumWP99
    |--A. ovale Koch 1844H07
    |--A. papuanum Hirst 1914 [=A. papuana]H98
    |--A. pilosumS91
    |--A. postoculatum Neumann 1899H98
    |--A. quadricavum (Schulze 1941) [=Aponomma quadricavum; incl. Am. arianae Keirans & Garris 1986]KK96
    |--A. rotundatumWP99
    |--A. scaevolaWN09
    |--A. sphenodonti (Dumbleton 1943) [=Aponomma sphenodonti]KDB02
    |--A. testudinariumR72
    |--A. transversale (Lucas 1845) [=Aponomma transversale]KDB02
    |--A. triguttatum Koch 1844KDB02
    |    |--A. t. triguttatumH98
    |    |--A. t. ornatissimum Roberts 1962H98
    |    |--A. t. queenslandense Roberts 1962 [=A. triguttatum queenslandensis]H98
    |    `--A. t. rosei Roberts 1962H98
    |--‘Ixodes’ trimaculatus Lucas 1878 [=Aponomma trimaculatum]H98
    |--A. tuberculatumOW01
    |--A. usingeriS91
    |--‘Ixodes’ varanensis Supino 1897 [=Aponomma varanensis; incl. A. quadratum Cooper & Robinson 1908]H98
    |--A. variegatum (Fabricius 1794)ADG91
    |--A. vikirri Keirans et al. 1996H98
    `--A. yajimai Kishida 1935 [=Ambyomma (l. c.) yajimai]TYM08

Amblyomma fimbriatum (Koch 1844)KDB02 [=Aponomma fimbriatumKDB02; incl. Ap. ecinctum Neumann 1901H98, Ap. simplex Cooper & Robinson 1908H98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[ADG91] Amoo, A. O. J., O. O. Dipeolu & L. N. Gichuru. 1991. Tick ecology: on-host population dynamics of ticks in the Coast Province of Kenya. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 461–468. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Hoffmann, A. 2007. Acarology in Mexico: prehispanic to modern times. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 21–26. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 111–123. Texas Tech University Press.

[KK96] Keirans, J. E., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1996. Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze) (new combination), and Amblyomma arianae Keirans and Garris, a new junior synonym of Amblyomma quadricavum (Acari: Ixodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 164–165.

[KDB02] Klompen, H., S. J. Dobson & S. C. Barker. 2002. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844. Systematic Parasitology 53: 101–107.

[L35] Lawrence, R. F. 1935. The prostigmatic mites of South African lizards. Parasitology 27 (1): 1–45.

[M72] Monroe, R. 1972. Chelicerate type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16 (2): 291–307.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 100–109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R72] Rajagopalan, P. K. 1972. Ixodid ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild birds in the Kyasanur Forest disease area of Shimoga District, Mysore State, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 55–78.

[SC19] Schaefer, I., & T. Caruso. 2019. Oribatid mites show that soil food web complexity and close aboveground-belowground linkages emerged in the early Paleozoic. Communications Biology 2: 387.

[S91] Schatz, H. 1991. Arrival and establishment of Acari on oceanic islands. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 613–618. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[SH91] Sonenshine, D. E., J. G. Hamilton, J. S. Phillips & W. R. Lusby. 1991. Mounting sex pheromone: its role in regulation of mate recognition in the Ixodidae. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 69–78. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[SG72] Sreenivasan, M. A., & G. Geevarghese. 1972. Occurrence of Amblyomma javanense (Supino, 1897) (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) in the Kyasanur Forest disease area, Shimoga District, Mysore State, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 441–442.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WN09] Warburton, C., & G. H. F. Nuttall. 1909. On new species of Ixodidae, with a note on abnormalities observed in ticks. Parasitology 2 (1-2): 57–76.

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