Ambuloasteroidea

Poraniomorpha hispida, copyright Claude Nozères.

Belongs within: Asteroidea.
Contains: Forcipulatida, Valvatacea, Spinulosacea.

The Neoasteroidea represents the starfish crown group, including all living starfish and all known Asteroidea from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras (Blake & Hagdorn 2003).

<==Ambuloasteroidea
    |--CalliasterellidaeBH03
    |    |--Protarthraster Spencer 1918 [Protarthrasterinae]SW66
    |    |    `--*P. longimanus (Whidborne 1896) [=Palaeaster longimanus]SW66
    |    `--CalliasterellinaeBH03
    |         |  i. s.: ‘Calyptactis’ confragosus Miller 1892BH03, B02
    |         |         ‘Calyptactis’ demissus Miller 1892BH03, B02
    |         |         ‘Calyptactis’ spenceri Chestnut & Ettensohn 1988BH03
    |         |--Siliciaster Kesling 1969BH03
    |         |    `--*S. esseri Kesling 1969BH03
    |         `--Calliasterella Schöndorf 1910BH03 [=Calliaster Trautschold 1879 non Gray 1840SW66]
    |              |--*C. mira (Trautschold 1879)BH03, B02 [=*Calliaster mirusSW66]
    |              `--C. americana Kesling & Strimple 1966BH03
    `--+--CompsasteridaeSW66
       |    |--Jaekelaster Stürtz 1899B02
       |    |--Schlueteraster Lehmann 1957B02
       |    `--Compsaster Worthen & Miller 1883BH03
       |         `--*C. formosus Worthen & Miller 1883B02
       `--Neoasteroidea [Valvatina]BH03
            |--ForcipulatidaBH03
            `--+--+--ValvataceaBH03
               |  `--SpinulosaceaBH03
               `--PoraniidaeBH03
                    |  i. s.: Chondraster Verrill 1895SW66
                    |           `--*C. grandis (Verrill 1878) [=Porania grandis]SW66
                    |         Poraniella Verrill 1914SW66
                    |           `--*P. regularis Verrill 1914SW66
                    |         Poranisca Verrill 1914SW66
                    |           `--*P. lepida Verrill 1914SW66
                    |         Pseudoporania Dons 1936SW66
                    |           `--*P. stormi Dons 1936SW66
                    |         Spoladaster Fisher 1940SW66
                    |           `--*S. brachyactis (Clark 1923) [=Cryaster brachyactis]SW66
                    |         Tylaster Danielsson & Koren 1881SW66
                    |           `--*T. willei Danielsson & Koren 1881SW66
                    |         Sphaeriaster Dons 1939 [=Sphaeraster Dons 1938 non Quenstedt 1875]SW66
                    |           |--*S. berthae (Dons 1938) [=*Sphaeraster berthae]SW66
                    |           `--S. jurassicus Hess 1972SG93
                    |         Poraniomorpha Danielsson & Koren 1881 (see below for synonymy)SW66
                    |           |--*P. rosea Danielsson & Koren 1881SW66
                    |           |--P. hispidaBK77
                    |           `--P. tumidaBK77
                    |--Porania Gray 1840BTH00, BH04 [incl. Glabraster Clark 1916SW66]
                    |    `--P. pulvillus (Müller 1788) (see below for synonymy)SW66
                    |         |--P. p. pulvillusBH04
                    |         `--P. p. insignis Muller 1776BH04
                    `--+--Noriaster Blake, Tintori & Hagdorn 2000BTH00
                       |    `--*N. barberoi Blake, Tintori & Hagdorn 2000BH03
                       `--Marginaster Perrier 1881BTH00, SW66 [incl. Cheilaster Bell 1892SW66]
                            `--*M. pectinatus Perrier 1881SW66

Porania pulvillus (Müller 1788) [=Asterias pulvillus; incl. A. gibbosus Leach 1817 non A. gibbosa Pennant 1777, *Porania gibbosa]SW66

Poraniomorpha Danielsson & Koren 1881 [incl. Culcitopsis Verrill 1914, Lasiaster Sladen 1889, Rhegaster Sladen 1883]SW66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B02] Blake, D. B. 2002. Compsaster formosus Worthen & Miller (Asteroidea; Echinodermata): a Carboniferous homeomorph of the post-Paleozoic Asteriidae. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (2): 357–367.

[BH03] Blake, D. B., & H. Hagdorn. 2003. The Asteroidea (Echniodermata) of the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic of Germany). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 77 (1): 23–58.

[BH04] Blake, D. B., & F. H. C. Hotchkiss. 2004. Recognition of the asteroid (Echinodermata) crown group: implications of the ventral skeleton. Journal of Paleontology 78: 359–370.

[BTH00] Blake, D. B., A. Tintori & H. Hagdorn. 2000. A new, early crown-group asteroid (Echinodermata) from the Norian (Triassic) of northern Italy. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 106: 141–156.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SW66] Spencer, W. K., & C. W. Wright. 1966. Asterozoans. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U4–U107. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

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