Orange clownfish Amphiprion percula, copyright Lyle Vail.

Belongs within: Chrysiptera.

Amphiprion, the anemonefishes or clownfishes, is an Indo-Pacific genus of small, boldly coloured fishes that typically live in commensal associations with large sea anemones (Allen 1975).

Characters (from Allen 1975): Body ovate or oblong; teeth conical or incisiform; preorbital and suborbital with one or more serrations; opercle, subopercle and interopercle with strong serrae; opercular bones scaled; interorbital scaled or naked; pelvic axillary scale process weakly to strongly developed; scales small, 47 to 66 (usually 50 to 60) vertical rows between upper edge of opercle and caudal fin base; dorsal rays VIII to XI, 14 to 21; anal rays II, 11 to 15; pectoral and pelvic fins rounded to pointed; caudal fin rounded, truncate or emarginate.

<==Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider 1801A75 [=Prochilus Bleeker 1877S60; Amphiprionidae, Amphiprioninae, Premninae]
    |  i. s.: A. rosenbergi Bleeker 1859M58
    |         A. thiellei Burgess 1981A01
    |         A. (Paramphiprion Wang 1941)A75
    |           |--A. (P.) polymnus (Linnaeus 1758)A75, S60 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |--A. (P.) latezonatus Waite 1900A75, A01
    |           `--A. (P.) sebae Bleeker 1853A75, S60 [=Prochilus sebaeP89]
    |--+--Premnas Cuvier 1817TMH04, S60 [Premnidae]
    |  |    `--*P. biaculeatus (Bloch 1790)S60 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--A. (Actinicola Fowler 1904)A75
    |       |--A. (*A.) percula (Lacépède 1802)A75, TMH04, S60 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--A. (A.) ocellaris Cuvier 1830A75, MM09
    `--A. (Amphiprion)A75
         |  i. s.: *A. (A.) ephippium (Bloch 1790)S60 (see below for synonymy)
         |         A. (A.) akindynos Allen 1972A75, A01
         |         A. (A.) allardiA75
         |         A. (A.) bicinctus Rüppell 1828S60 [=A. ephippium var. bicinctusM58]
         |         A. (A.) calliopsA75
         |         A. (A.) chagosensisA75
         |         A. (A.) chrysogaster C & V 1830 (see below for synonymy)S60
         |         A. (A.) chrysopterus Cuvier 1830A75, A01
         |         A. (A.) fuscocaudatusA75
         |         A. (A.) latifasciatusA75
         |         A. (A.) mccullochi Whitley 1929A75, A01
         |         A. (A.) melanopus Bleeker 1852A75, M58 (see below for synonymy)
         |         A. (A.) rubrocinctus Richardson 1842 [incl. A. ruppelii Castelnau 1873, A. tricolor Günther 1862]A75
         |         A. (A.) tricinctus Schultz & Welander 1953A75, A01
         |--A. (A.) clarkii (Bennett 1830)TMH04, S60 [=Anthias clarkiiA75; incl. Am. papuensis Macleay 1883A75]
         `--+--A. (A.) frenatus Brevoort 1856TMH04, M28 [incl. Prochilus macrostoma Bleeker 1877M28]
            `--A. (Phalerebus Whitley 1929)S60
                 |--A. (*P.) akallopisos Bleeker 1853A75, S60 [=A. akallopisusM28, Prochilus akallopisusM28]
                 |--A. (P.) leucokranos Allen 1973A75, A01
                 |--A. (P.) nigripesA75
                 |--A. (P.) perideraion Bleeker 1855A75, TMH04, M58 [=A. perideraeusM28, Prochilus perideraionM28]
                 `--A. (P.) sandaracinos Allen 1972A75, A01

Amphiprion (*Actinicola) percula (Lacépède 1802)A75, TMH04, S60 [=Lutjanus perculaM58, Prochilus perculaM58; incl. Actinocola bicolorG75, Amphiprion tunicatus Cuvier 1830A75]

Amphiprion (Amphiprion) chrysogaster C & V 1830 [incl. A. fusciventer Bennett 1831, A. mauritiensis Schultz 1953, A. trifasciatus C & V 1830]S60

*Amphiprion (Amphiprion) ephippium (Bloch 1790)S60 [=Lutjanus ephippiumA75, *Prochilus ephippiumM28; incl. Prochilus polylepis Bleeker 1877M58, A. xanthurus C & V 1830S60]

Amphiprion (Amphiprion) melanopus Bleeker 1852A75, M58 [=A. ephippium var. melanopusM58, Prochilus melanopusM58; incl. A. arion De Vis 1884A75, A. monofasciatus Thiollière 1856A75, A. verweyi Whitley 1933A75]

Amphiprion (Paramphiprion) polymnus (Linnaeus 1758)A75, S60 [=Perca polymnusA75, Anthias polymnaM28, Prochilus polymnusM58; incl. Pr. bifasciatus Bloch 1792M58, S60, Amphiprion bifasciatusM28, Anthias bifasciatusM28, Holocentrus bifasciatusM28, Amphiprion boholensis Cartier 1873M28, Am. chrysargurus Bleeker 1859M58, *Paramphiprion hainanensis Wang 1941A75, Am. intermedius Schlegel & Muller 1839S60, Am. japonicus Schlegel 1846M28, Lutjanus jourdin Lacépède 1803M28, Am. laticlavius Cuvier 1830A75, Am. milii Thiollière 1857M58, Am. snyderi Ishikawa 1904M28]

*Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch 1790)S60 [=Chaetodon biaculeatusS60; incl. P. gibbosus Castelnau 1875A75, P. simicinctus Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830M28, Holocentrus sonnerat Lacepede 1803S60, P. trifasciatus Thiollière 1857M58]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A75] Allen, G. R. 1975. Damselfishes of the South Seas. T.F.H.

[A01] Allen, J. R. 2001. Pomacentridae. Damselfishes (anemonefishes). In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) pp. 3337–3356. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[M28] Montalban, H. R. 1928. Pomacentridae of the Philippine Islands. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[MM09] Moore, G., & S. Morrison. 2009. Fishes of three North West Shelf atolls of Western Australia: Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 221–255.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[P89] Perugia, A. 1889. Elenco dei pesci raccolti dal Dott. Elio Modigliani nelle Isole di Nias e di Sumatra. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 269–277.

[S60] Smith, J. L. B. 1960. Coral fishes of the family Pomacentridae from the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Ichthyological Bulletin 19: 317–349.

[TMH04] Tang, K. L., K. M. McNyset & N. I. Holcroft. 2004. The phylogenetic position of five genera (Acanthochromis, Azurina, Chrysiptera, Dischistodus, and Neopomacentrus) of damselfishes (Perciformes: Pomacentridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 823–828.

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