Amphipyndacioidea

Amphipyndax enesseffi, from here.

Belongs within: Nassellaria.

The Amphipyndacioidea are a group of radiolarians known from the Early Triassic to the present (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): Multisegmented with cephalis, subdivided into two opposite lobes by transverse septum. Septum formed by pair of horizontal and subhorizontal branches of spine A, which may be fused with spine V. Initial spicule with spines A, D, V, L, and l.

<==AmphipyndacioideaAA05
    |--SpongocapsulidaeAA05
    |    |--Anachoreta O’Dogherty 1994AA05
    |    |--Obesacapsula Pessagno 1977AA05
    |    |--Spongocapsula Pessagno 1977AA05
    |    |--Torculum O’Dogherty 1995AA05
    |    `--Tubilustrium O’Dogherty 1994AA05
    |--CanoptidaeAA05
    |    |--Canoptum Pessagno 1979AA05
    |    |--Cinguloturris Dumitrica 1982AA05
    |    |--Globolaxtorum Carter 1993AA05
    |    |--Laxtorum Blome 1984AA05
    |    |--Neocanoptum Zhang 1990AA05
    |    `--Relanus Pessagno & Whalen 1982AA05
    |--SyringocapsidaeAA05
    |    |--Dibolachras Foreman 1973AA05
    |    |--Parapodocapsa Steiger 1992AA05
    |    |--Quarticella Takemura 1986AA05
    |    |--Squinabollum Dumitrica 1970AA05
    |    |--Syringocapsa Neviani 1900AA05
    |    |--Yamatoum Takemura 1986AA05
    |    |--Podobursa Wisniowski 1889AA05
    |    |    `--P. typica (Rüst 1898)BW04
    |    `--Dicolocapsa Haeckel 1881AA05
    |         `--D. corBL79
    |--AmphipyndacidaeAA05
    |    |--Amphipternis Foreman 1973AA05
    |    |--Cyrtolagena Haeckel 1887 [incl. Stichophormiscus Haeckel 1887]AA05
    |    |--Palinandromeda Pessagno, Blome & Hull 1993AA05
    |    |--Parvifavus Takemura 1986AA05
    |    |--Protostichocapsa Empson-Morin 1982AA05
    |    |--Sticholagena Haeckel 1887AA05
    |    |--Stichophormis Haeckel 1887 [Stichophormida]AA05
    |    |--Stichophormium Haeckel 1887AA05
    |    |--‘Triversus’ Takemura 1986 non Sher 1974AA05
    |    |--Stichophaena Haeckel 1881AA05
    |    |    `--S. ritterianaH04
    |    `--Amphipyndax Foreman 1966AA05
    |         |--A. enesseffiK79
    |         `--A. stockiBL79
    `--ParvicingulidaeAA05
         |--WrangelliinaeAA05
         |    |--Neowrangellium Yeh 1987AA05
         |    |--Paracanoptum Yeh 1987AA05
         |    |--Proparvicingula Carter 1993AA05
         |    |--Pseudocrolanium Jud 1994AA05
         |    |--Svinitzium Dumitrica 1997AA05
         |    `--Wrangellium Pessagno & Whalen 1982AA05
         `--ParvicingulinaeAA05
              |--Caneta Pessagno, Blome & Hull 1993AA05
              |--Darvelus Hull 1995AA05
              |--Eoxitus Kozur 1985AA05
              |--Mirifusus Pessagno 1977AA05
              |--Praecaneta Pessagno, Blome & Hull 1993AA05
              |--Praeparvicingula Pessagno, Blome & Hull 1993AA05
              |--Pseudoristola Yeh 1987AA05
              |--Ristola Pessagno & Whalen 1982AA05
              |--Tethysetta Dumitrica 1997AA05
              `--Parvicingula Pessagno 1977AA05
                   `--P. cosmoconicaBW04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BW04] Babazadeh, S. A., & P. de Wever. 2004. Early Cretaceous radiolarian assemblages from radiolarites in the Sistan Suture (eastern Iran). Geodiversitas 26 (2): 185–206.

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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