Andrenidae

Perdita minima, copyright Krystle Hickman.

Belongs within: Anthophila.
Contains: Andrena.

The Andrenidae are a family of short-tongued bees that nest in soil, found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. They are characterised by the presence of two subantennal sutures below each antenna, which are usually not convergent below. Members of the subfamily Andreninae are most diverse in Eurasia and North America whereas members of the other subfamilies are mostly southern in distribution (Engel 2001). Andreninae are distinguished by having the apex of the marginal cell pointed or narrowly rounded on or near the wing margin. The New World Oxaeinae have the marginal cell of the fore wing particularly elongate with the stigma being all but absent. Panurginae have an apically truncate marginal cell, hairless and shining facial fovea, and the male gonobase is reduced or absent.

<==Andrenidae
| i. s.: LutziellaR35
| Cilissa leporinaR35
|--AndreninaeE01
| |--AndrenaE01
| |--Lithandrena Cockerell 1906E01
| | `--*L. saxorum Cockerell 1906E01
| |--Pelandrena Cockerell 1909E01
| | `--*P. reducta Cockerell 1909E01
| |--MacroteraBS23
| | |--M. echinocactiBS23
| | `--M. portalis [=Perdita portalis]H18
| `--ProtoxaeaBS23
| |--P. gloriosaBD17
| `--P. texanaR35
`--+--AlocandreninaeE01
`--+--EuherbstiinaeE01
`--+--OxaeaG20 [Oxaeidae, OxaeinaeE01]
| `--O. flavescens [=Nomada (Oxaea) flavescens]G20
`--Panurginae [Panurgidae]E01
| i. s.: Libellulapis Cockerell 1906E01
| `--*L. antiquorum Cockerell 1906E01
|--Heterosarus [Protandrenini]E01
| `--H. eickwortiE01
`--+--+--+--ProtomeliturginiE01
| | `--CalliopsisR35 [CalliopsiniE01]
| | |--C. coloradensisR35
| | |--C. lepidusC01
| | |--C. nebraskensisR35
| | `--C. rhodophilusC01
| `--PerditaR35 [PerditiniE01]
| |--P. chamaesarachae Ckll. 1896C00
| |--P. echinocactiBD17
| |--P. exclamansE66
| |--P. knulliE66
| |--P. larreaeE66
| |--P. marcialisE66
| |--P. mentzeliarumE66
| |--P. minimaR35
| |--P. opuntiaR35
| `--P. (*Neoperdita) zebrataR35
`--+--+--Meliturgula [Meliturgulini, Paramelitturgini]E01
| `--MeliturgaR35 [MelitturginiE01, Mermiglossini]
| |--M. clavicornis [=Eucera (Melitturga) clavicornis]G20
| |--M. fervensL49
| `--M. oraniensisL49
`--Panurgini [Camptopoeumini, Panurginini]E01
|--CamptopoeumR35
| |--C. hirsutuliumR35
| `--C. sacrumPK17
|--PanurginusMS01
| |--P. boyleiC01
| |--P. labiatusR35
| `--P. pauper [incl. P. pauper var. flavotinctus]C01
`--PanurgusF05
|--P. banksianusR13
|--P. calcaratusR35
|--P. cephalotesL49
|--P. dentipesPK17
|--P. (Panurgus) lobatusG20
|--P. (Pachycephalopanurgus) meridionalis Patiny, Ortiz-Sánchez & Michez 2005F05
`--P. unicolorR26

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[C00] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1900. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 401–416.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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