Reconstruction of Edmontonia rugosidens by E. M. Fulda.

Belongs within: Genasauria.
Contains: Ankylosauridae, Edmontoniinae.

The Ankylosauria is a clade of more or less heavily armoured, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that has been defined as including all taxa closer to Ankylosaurus than Stegosaurus. Most classifications of ankylosaurs have recognised the families Nodosauridae, with relatively slender snouts, and Ankylosauridae, with broader snouts and often with a large bony club on the end of the tail.

Synapomorphies (from Vickaryous et al. 2004): Skull with cranial ornamentation present across rostral region and lateral surface of angular; antorbital, supratemporal and external mandibular fenestrae absent; maxillary tooth row inset from lateral edge of maxilla; multiple parasagittal rows of osteoderms present across dorsal surface of neck and postcervical region of body; acetabulum imperforate; synsacrum composed of co-ossified dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae.

    |  `--Polacanthidae [Polacanthinae]C01
    |       |--+--Hylaeosaurus Mantell 1833C01, VMW04 [incl. Vectensia Delair 1982VMW04]
    |       |  |    `--H. armatus Mantell 1833 [incl. Hylosaurus mantelli Fitzinger 1843, Hyla. oweni Mantell 1844]VMW04
    |       |  `--Mymoorapelta Kirkland & Carpenter 1994C01, D07
    |       |       `--M. maysi Kirkland & Carpenter 1994VMW04
    |       `--+--Hoplitosaurus Lucas 1902C01, VMW04
    |          |    `--H. marshi (Lucas 1901) [=Stegosaurus marshi, Polacanthus marshi]VMW04
    |          `--Polacanthus Huxley 1867C01, VMW04
    |               |--P. foxii Hulke 1881 [=Hylaeosaurus foxii; incl. P. becklesi Hennig 1924]VMW04
    |               `--P. rudgwickensis Blows 1996VMW04
         |  i. s.: Rhodanosaurus lugdunensis Nopcsa 1929 (n. d.)N85, VMW04 [=Struthiosaurus lugdunensisD07]
         |         Dracopelta Galton 1980N85
         |           `--D. zbyszewskii Galton 1980VMW04
         |         Sarcolestes Lydekker 1893N85, VMW04
         |           `--S. leedsi Lydekker 1893VMW04
         |         Priodontognathus Seeley 1875 (n. d.)VMW04
         |           `--*P. phillipsii (Seeley 1869) [=Iguanodon phillipsii]VMW04
         |         Cryptodraco Lydekker 1889 (n. d.)N85, VMW04
         |           `--*C. eumerus (Seeley 1869) [=Cryptosaurus eumerus]VMW04
         |         Polacanthoides ponderosus Nopcsa 1929 (n. d.)N85, VMW04
         |         Priconodon crassus Marsh 1888 (n. d.)N85, VMW04
         |         Animantarx Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 1999VMW04
         |           `--A. ramaljonesi Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 1999VMW04
         |         Liaoningosaurus Xu, Wang & You 2001XWY01
         |           `--*L. paradoxus Xu, Wang & You 2001XWY01
         |         Acanthopholis Huxley 1867D07
         |           |--A. eucercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.)VMW04
         |           |--A. horridus Huxley 1867 (n. d.)VMW04
         |           |--A. hughesiiD07
         |           |--A. keepingiD07
         |           |--A. macrocercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.)VMW04
         |           |--A. platypus Seeley 1869 (n. d.)VMW04
         |           `--A. stereocercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.)VMW04
         |         Peloroplites cedrimontanusP10
         |         Zhejiangosaurus lishuiensisP10
         |         Hungarosaurus tormaiP10
         |--Cedarpelta Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 2001VMW04
         |    `--*C. bilbeyhallorum Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 2001CK01
            `--+--Anoplosaurus Seeley 1879C01, VMW04
               |    |--A. curtonotus Seeley 1879VMW04
               |    |--A. major Seeley 1879 (n. d.)VMW04
               |    `--A. tanyspondulusD07
               `--+--+--Nodosaurus Marsh 1889C01, VMW04
                  |  |    `--N. textilis Marsh 1889VMW04
                  |  `--Struthiosaurus Bunzel 1871C01, VMW04 (see below for synonymy)
                  |       |--*S. austriacus Bunzel 1871PSG01 (see below for synonymy)
                  |       |--S. languedocensis Garcia & Pereda-Suberbiola 2003VMW04
                  |       `--S. transylvanicus Nopcsa 1915VMW04
                  `--+--Sauropelta Ostrom 1970C01, N85
                     |    `--S. edwardsorum Ostrom 1970VMW04
                     `--+--Pawpawsaurus Lee 1996C01, VMW04
                        |    `--P. campbelli Lee 1996VMW04
                        `--Silvisaurus Eaton 1960C01, VMW04
                             `--S. condrayi Eaton 1960VMW04
Ankylosauria incertae sedis:
  Sauroplites scutiger Bohlin 1953 (n. d.)VMW04
  Amtosaurus Kurzanov & Tumanova 1978VMW04
    |--A. archibaldi Averianov 2002VMW04
    `--A. magnus Kurzanov & Tumanova 1978VMW04
  Stegosaurides [=Stegosauroides]N85
    `--S. excavatus Bohlin 1953 (n. d.)VMW04
  Brachypodosaurus gravis Chakravarti 1934 (n. d.)VMW04
  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Seeley 1879 (n. d.)VMW04
  Hierosaurus sternbergi Wieland 1909 (n. d.)VMW04
  Lametasaurus indicus Matley 1923 (n. d.)VMW04
  Palaeoscincus Leidy 1856D07
    |--*P. costatus Leidy 1856 (n. d.)M96
    |--P. asper Lambe 1902 (n. d.)VMW04
    `--P. latus Marsh 1892 (n. d.)VMW04
  Peishansaurus philemys Bohlin 1953 (n. d.)VMW04
  Rhadinosaurus alcinus Seeley 1881 (n. d.)VMW04
  Sygonosaurus macrocercus Seeley 1879 (n. d.)VMW04
  Sangonghesaurus Chao 1983C01
  Syngonosaurus macrocercus Seeley 1879C01
  Antarctopelta oliveroiP10

Struthiosaurus Bunzel 1871C01, VMW04 [incl. Cretaeomus Seeley 1881VMW04, Danubiosaurus Bunzel 1871VMW04, DanubriosaurusN85, Leipsanosaurus Nopcsa 1918VMW04, LepanosaurusN85, Pleuropeltis Seeley 1881VMW04]

*Struthiosaurus austriacus Bunzel 1871PSG01 [incl. Danubiosaurus anceps Bunzel 1871VMW04, Hoplosaurus ischyrus Seeley 1881VMW04, Nodosaurus ischyrusC01, Crataeomus lepidophorus Seeley 1881VMW04, Leipsanosaurus noricus Nopcsa 1918VMW04, C. pawlowitschii Seeley 1881VMW04, Pleuropeltis suessi Seeley 1881VMW04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B01] Blows, W. T. 2001. Dermal armor of the polacanthine dinosaurs. In: Carpenter, K. (ed.) 2001. The Armored Dinosaurs pp. 363–385. Indiana University Press.

[C01] Carpenter, K. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ankylosauria. In: Carpenter, K. (ed.) 2001. The Armored Dinosaurs pp. 455–483. Indiana University Press.

[CK01] Carpenter, K., J. I. Kirkland, D. Burge & J. Bird. 2001. Disarticulated skull of a new primitive ankylosaurid from the Lower Cretaceous of eastern Utah. In: Carpenter, K. (ed.) 2001. The Armored Dinosaurs pp. 211–238. Indiana University Press.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[M96] Marsh, O. C. 1896. The Dinosaurs of North America: Washington.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[P10] Paul, G. S. 2010. Dinosaurs: A Field Guide. A & C Black.

[PSG01] Pereda Suberbiola, X., & P. M. Galton. 2001. Reappraisal of the nodosaurid ankylosaur Struthiosaurus austriacus Bunzel from the Upper Cretaceous Gosau Beds of Austria. In: Carpenter, K. (ed.) 2001. The Armored Dinosaurs pp. 173–210. Indiana University Press.

[VMW04] Vickaryous, M. K., T. Maryańska & D. B. Weishampel. 2004. Ankylosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 363–392. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[XWY01] Xu, X., X.-L. Wang & H.-L. You. 2001. A juvenile ankylosaur from China. Naturwissenschaften 88: 297–300.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *