Anomaluromorpha

Beecroft’s anomalures Anomalurus beecrofti, copyright ONG ODDB.

Belongs within: Rodentia.

Anomalurus pelii auzembergeri
Published 27 November 2009
Anomalurus pelii auzembergeri, from here.

The “scaly-tailed squirrels” of the family Anomaluridae are seven species in three genera of arboreal rodents found in western and central Africa. Like pretty much everything from western and central Africa, they’re somewhat enigmatic. Relationships between anomalures and other rodents have long been debated; it seems likely that their closest relative is the springhaas Pedetes capensis, another African endemic (Blanga-Kanfi et al. 2009), but the relationship is not an overly close one, nor can we be really confident where the springhaas-anomalure clade sits in turn. One thing we can be reasonably sure of is that anomalures are not closely related to squirrels (despite the common name).

The names “scaly-tailed squirrel” and “Anomaluridae” (i.e. “strange tail”) both refer to the double-row of keeled scales under the base of the tail, visible in the photo above. These scales are used to grip the tree on which the animal is climbing, and also as accessory landing gear in the two gliding genera, Anomalurus and Idiurus (Nowak, 1999). The monotypic third genus, Zenkerella insignis, lacks a gliding membrane (patagium). Idiurus and Zenkerella are currently regarded as more closely related than either is to Anomalurus, but this relationship does not seem to have been formally tested phylogenetically. In the two gliding genera, an elongate cartilaginous process extends from the elbow to support the patagium; similar processes have been evolved by other gliding mammals (Johnson-Murray 1987) but anomalurids are remarkable in just how much it has been developed.

Anomalurus pelii is the largest of the anomalures, up to two kilograms in weight, and is found from Liberia to the Ivory Coast. The individual in the photo at the top of the section is the Liberian subspecies A. pelii auzembergeri which differs from other subspecies in lacking bright white patches on the head and along the margins of the patagium, as seen in the photo just above from here.

Systematics of Anomaluromorpha
<==AnomaluromorphaB74
    |--Pedetidae [Pedetoidea]B-EC07
    |    |--Parapedetes namaquensisL78
    |    |--Megapedetes MacInnes 1957SM93
    |    |    `--M. pentadactylusL78
    |    `--PedetesL78
    |         |--P. cafferJK05
    |         |--P. capensisB74
    |         |--P. gracileL78
    |         `--P. surdasterMJ11
    `--+--PondaungimysMJ11
       |--TheridomyidaeJ88
       |    |--TheridomysL78
       |    |--Protadelomys Hartenberger 1968SM93
       |    |--Columbomys Thaler 1962SM93
       |    |--PseudoltinomysR06
       |    |--ParadelomysR06
       |    |--SuevosciurusR06
       |    `--ElfomysR06
       `--AnomaluroideaR06
            |--ZegdoumyidaeR06
            |    |--Zegdoumys sbetlai Vianey-Liaud et al. 1994GH99
            |    `--GlibemysR06
            `--AnomaluridaeB-EC07
                 |  i. s.: ParanomalurusL78
                 |           |--P. bishopiL78
                 |           |--P. soniaeL78
                 |           `--P. walkeriL78
                 |         Nementchamys Jaeger et al. 1985SM93
                 |--ZenkerellaFS15
                 |    |--Z. insignisIT07
                 |    `--Z. wintoniL78
                 `--+--IdiurusFS15
                    |    |--I. macrotisIT07
                    |    `--I. zenkeriIT07
                    `--+--ShazurusMJ11
                       `--Anomalurus Waterhouse 1842FS15, W42 [=Aroaethrus Waterhouse 1842 (nom. inv.)W42]
                            |--*A. fraseri Waterhouse 1842W42
                            |--A. beecroftiIT07
                            |--A. derbianusIT07
                            |--A. peliiFS15
                            `--A. pusillusIT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B-EC07] Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., M. Cardillo, K. E. Jones, R. D. E. MacPhee, R. M. D. Beck, R. Grenyer, S. A. Price, R. A. Vos, J. L. Gittleman & A. Purvis. 2007. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446: 507–512.

Blanga-Kanfi, S., H. Miranda, O. Penn, T. Pupko, R. W. DeBry & D. Huchon. 2009. Rodent phylogeny revised: analysis of six nuclear genes from all major rodent clades. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 71.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl. 62): 1–160.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[GH99] Gheerbrant, E., & J.-L. Hartenberger. 1999. Nouveau mammifère insectivore (?Lipotyphla, ?Erinaceomorpha) de l’Eocène inférieur de Chambi (Tunisie). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1–2): 143–156.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J88] Jaeger, J.-J. 1988. Rodent phylogeny: new data and old problems. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 177–199. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JK05] Jenkins, P. D., C. W. Kilpatrick, M. F. Robinson & R. J. Timmins. 2005. Morphological and molecular investigations of a new family, genus and species of rodent (Mammalia: Rodentia: Hystricognatha) from Lao PDR. Systematics and Biodiversity 2 (4): 419–454.

Johnson-Murray, J. L. 1987. The comparative myology of the gliding membranes of Acrobates, Petauroides and Petaurus contrasted with the cutaneous myology of Hemibelideus and Pseudocheirus (Marsupialia, Phalangeridae) and with selected gliding Rodentia (Sciuridae and Anomaluridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 35 (2): 101–113.

[L78] Lavocat, L. 1978. Rodentia and Lagomorpha. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 69–89. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World 6th ed. vol. 1. Johns Hopkins University Press.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W42] Waterhouse, G. R. 1842. Descriptions of new species of quadrupeds collected by Mr. Fraser at Fernando Po. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 124–130.

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