Anoplura

 Short-nosed cattle louse Haematopinus eurysternus, from Quizlet.

Belongs within: Phthiraptera.

The Anoplura are a group of lice that have the mouthparts modified for sucking. All anoplurans are parasites of mammals. Species associated with humans are the crab louse Pthirus pubis and the head and body louse Pediculus humanus. Other species in the families Linognathidae and Haematopinus are associated with livestock. Pediculus, Pthirus and Haematopinus retain distinct eyes or ocular points (Calaby & Murray 1991).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): All thoracic segments fused; meso- and metathoracic terga reduced; tentorium completely lost; hypopharynx and labium modified into piercing stylets.

<==Anoplura [Siphunculata]
    |--NeolinognathidaeGE05
    |--PedicinusA71 [PedicinidaeGE05]
    |--HamophthiriidaeGE05
    |--HybophthiridaeGE05
    |--MicrothoraciusBE38 [MicrothoraciidaeGE05]
    |--RatemiidaeGE05
    |--Pecaroecus Babcock & Ewing 1938BE38 [PecaroecidaeGE05]
    |    `--*P. javalii Babcock & Ewing 1938BE38
    |--Pthirus [Pthiridae]GE05
    |    |--P. gorillaeW92
    |    `--P. pubisGE05
    |--EnderleinellusS69 [EnderleinellidaeGE05]
    |    |--E. dremomydis Ferris 1919S69
    |    `--E. tamiasis Fahrenholz 1916S69
    |--EchinophthiriidaeGE05
    |    |--Echinophthirius horridusGE05
    |    |--Lepidophthirus Enderlein 1904HPP80
    |    |    `--L. macrorhini Enderlein 1904HPP80
    |    `--Antarctophthirus Enderlein 1906HPP80
    |         |--A. microchir (Trouessart & Neumann 1888)HPP80
    |         `--A. ogmorhiniN91
    |--Haematopinus [Haematopinidae]GE05
    |    |--H. asiniCM91
    |    |--H. eurysternusCM91
    |    |--H. hesperomydis Osburn 1891S69
    |    |--H. quadripertususCM91
    |    |--H. suisCM91
    |    `--H. tuberculatusGE05
    |--Hoplopleura [Hoplopleuridae]GE05
    |    |--H. acanthopusGE05
    |    |--H. apomydis Ferris 1921S69
    |    |--H. bidentataC70
    |    |--H. calabyiCM91
    |    |--H. pacificaCM91
    |    |--H. scapteromydis Ronderos 1965L07
    |    `--H. zelotomydis Johnson 1960S69
    |--PolyplacidaeGE05
    |    |--Neohaematopinus relictusR02
    |    |--HaemodipsusCM91
    |    |    |--*H. lyriocephalusC70
    |    |    `--H. ventricosusCM91
    |    `--PolyplaxGE05
    |         |--P. asiaticaGE05
    |         |--P. otomydis Cummings 1912S69
    |         |--P. serrataCM91
    |         `--P. spinulosaCM91
    |--LinognathidaeGE05
    |    |--SolenopotesGE05
    |    |    |--S. capillatusCM91
    |    |    `--S. muntiacusGE05
    |    `--LinognathusCM91
    |         |--L. ovillusCM91
    |         |--L. pedalisCM91
    |         |--L. setosusCM91
    |         |--L. stenopsisCM91
    |         `--L. vituliCM91
    `--Pediculus Linnaeus 1758S61 [PediculidaeGE05]
         |--P. anseris Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. apis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. ardeae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. asini Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. bovis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. cameli Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. caponis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. cervi Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. cervicalisR26
         |--P. charadrii Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. ciconiae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. cygni Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. equi Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. fulicae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. gallinae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. gruis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. haematopi Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. humanus Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. P. h. capitusGE05, P. h. corporisA71, P. h. vestimentiA71]
         |--P. infausti Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. lagopi Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. meleagridis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. moschatae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. ovis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. pari Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. picae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. plataleae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. pubis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. querquedulae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. recurvirostrae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. ricinoides Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. sternae Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. suis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. tetraonis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--P. tinnunculi Linnaeus 1758L58
         `--P. vituli Linnaeus 1758L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BE38] Babcock, O. G., & H. E. Ewing. 1938. A new genus and species of Anoplura from the peccary. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 197–201.

[C70] Calaby, J. H. 1970. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 376–386. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HPP80] Horning, D. S., R. L. Palma & R. L. C. Pilgrim. 1980. The lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Snares Islands, New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 3: 1–17.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

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