Anthericaceae

Spider plant Chlorophytum comosum, copyright David J. Stang.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.

The Anthericaceae are a largely pantropical group of mostly rhizomatous herbs.

Characters (from Eggli & Nyffeler 2020): Perennial evergreen or geophytic herbs, rarely small shrubs; roots variable, fibrous or more commonly thickened and succulent, sometimes tuberous or moniliform; rhizome creeping, often covered with old leaf bases, or rarely stems (semi-)erect and succulent; leaves spiral and rosulate, rarely reduced to one, or distichous, with sheathing base, lamina flat, terete or trigonous, oblong, linear, glabrous to hairy, rarely succulent and xeromorphic, rigid to softly flaccid, margin often fimbriate; inflorescence lateral racemes or panicles, or condensed into clusters; peduncle bracteate; flowers 3-merous, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic or rarely slightly zygomorphic, usually small but conspicuous; perianth stellate, rarely urceolate or campanulate; tepals 3 + 3, oblong, often white or yellowish; stamens 6; filaments free or connate basally, glabrous or papillate; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed-epipeltate, dehiscing longitudinally; ovary superior, 3-locular; style simple, terete, smooth; stigma 3-lobed; placentation axile; fruits loculicidal dry capsules; seeds black, flat to angular or rounded, sometimes with an elaiosome.

<==Anthericaceae
|–Anthericum liliago EN20, TS03
`–+–Chlorophytum Ker Gawler 1807 (see below for synonymy) EN20
|    |–*C. inornatum Ker Gawler 1807 CC87
|    |–C. arundinaceum SanRav07
|    |–*Acrospira’ asphodeloides Welwitsch ex Baker 1878 [=*Debesia asphodeloides] EN20
|    |–C. bulbinifolium Hoell & Nordal 2008 EN20
|    |–*Dasystachys’ colubrina Baker 1878 EN20
|    |–C. comosum (Thunberg) Jacques 1862 CC87 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–C. cremnophilum Van Jaarsveld 2014 EN20
|    |–C. elatum MH98
|    |–*Verdickia’ katangensis De Wildemann 1902 EN20
|    |–C. laxum Br. 1810 CC87 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–C. nimmonii SaaRai07
|    |–C. rhizopendulum Bjorå et al. 2008 EN20
|    |–C. subpetiolatum EN20
|    `–C. suffruticosum Baker 1885 (see below for synonymy) EN20
`–+–Leucocrinum montanum EN20, H93
`–Echeandia EN20

Anthericaceae incertae sedis:
Romnalda H03
Dichopogon Kunth 1843 KM08, CC87
|–D. fimbriatus (Br.) Macbr. 1918 (see below for synonymy) CC87
|–D. capillipes (Endl.) Brittan 1987 [=Arthropodium capillipes Endl. in Lehmann 1846] CC87
|–D. preissii (Endl.) Brittan 1987 [=Arthropodium preissii Endl. in Lehmann 1846] CC87
|–D. strictus (Br.) Baker 1876 CC87 (see below for synonymy)
`–D. tyleri Brittan 1987 CC87
Corynotheca Muell. ex Benth. 1878 RL05, CC87
|–*C. lateriflora (Br.) Muell. ex Benth. 1878 [=Caesia lateriflora Br. 1810] CC87
|–C. asperata Henderson 1987 CC87
|–C. flexuosissima Henderson 1987 CC87
|–C. licrota Henderson 1987 [=C. lateriflora var. laevisperma Gauba 1948] CC87
|–C. micrantha (Lindley) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) CC87
|    |–C. m. var. micrantha CC87 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–C. m. var. acanthoclada (Muell.) Henderson 1987 (see below for synonymy) CC87
|    |–C. m. var. divaricata Henderson 1987 CC87
|    |–C. m. var. elongata Henderson 1987 CC87
|    |–C. m. var. gracilis Henderson 1987 CC87
|    `–C. m. var. panda Henderson 1987 CC87
`–C. pungens Henderson 1987 CC87

Chlorophytum Ker Gawler 1807 [incl. Acrospira Welwitsch ex Baker 1878 non Mont. 1857, Asphodelopsis Steudel ex Baker 1876, Dasystachys Baker 1878 (nom. illeg.), Debesia Kuntze 1891, Hartwegia Nees 1831, Hollia Heynhold 1846 non Sieber 1826, Verdickia De Willdemann 1902] EN20

Chlorophytum comosum (Thunberg) Jacques 1862 CC87 [=Anthericum comosum Thunberg 1794 CC87, Caesia comosa (Thunberg) Sprengel 1825 EN20, *Hartwegia comosa (Thunberg) Nees 1831, *Hollia comosa (Thunberg) Heynhold 1846 EN20, Phalangium comosum (Thunberg) Poiret 1804 EN20; incl. Chlorophytum macrophyllum var. angustifolium Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Ch. beniense De Wildeman 1921 EN20, Ch. brevipes Baker 1898 EN20, Ch. bukobense Engler 1895 EN20, Ch. burchellii Baker 1876 EN20, Ch. elatum var. burchelii (Baker) Baker 1897 EN20, Ch. delagoense Baker 1897 EN20, Ch. elatulum Poellnitz 1942 EN20, Ch. elgonense Bullock 1932 EN20, Ch. gazense Rendle 1911 EN20, Ch. glaucidulum Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Ch. inopinum Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Ch. ituriense De Wildeman 1921 EN20, Ch. bukobense var. kilimandscharicum Engler 1895 EN20, Ch. kirkii Baker 1882 EN20, Ch. limurense Rendle 1932 EN20, Anthericum longituberosum Von Poellnitz 1942 EN20, Ch. longum Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Ch. magnum Pollenitz 1946 EN20, Ch. miserum Rendle 1895 EN20, Ch. nemorosum Pollenitz 1946 EN20, Ch. paludicola Pollenitz 1946 EN20, Ch. glaucidulum var. pauper Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Anthericum planifolium Thunberg 1818 (nom. illeg.), Ch. ramiferum Rendle 1895 EN20, Ch. rugosum Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Ch. sparsiflorum Baker 1876 EN20, Anthericum sternbergianum Schultes & Schultes 1829 EN20, Ch. sternbergianum (Schultes & Schultes) Steudel 1840 EN20, Ch. turritum Pollenitz 1946 EN20, Ch. usambarense Poellnitz 1946 EN20, Anthericum vallistrappii Von Poellnitz 1942 EN20, Ch. variegatum CC87, Cordyline vivipara Hort. ex Steudel 1840 EN20, Phalangium viviparum Reinwardt ex Kunth 1843 EN20]

Chlorophytum laxum Br. 1810 CC87 [=Phalangium laxum (Br.) Muell. 1870 CC87; incl. P. parviflorum B78, Chlorophytum xerotinum Muell. 1858 CC87]

Chlorophytum suffruticosum Baker 1885 [=Anthericum suffruticosum (Baker) Milne-Redhead 1936; incl. A. acuminatum Rendle 1895, A. campestre Engler 1895, A. inexpectatum Von Poellnitz 1942, A. longisetosum Von Poellnitz 1942, Dasystachys polyphylla Baker 1898, Chlorophytum polyphyllum (Baker) Von Poellnitz 1942, C. rhizomatosum Baker 1885] EN20

Corynotheca micrantha (Lindley) Druce 1917 [=Asparagus micranthus Lindley 1840; incl. Thysanotus micranthus Endl. in Lehmann 1846, T. micranthus var. minor Endl. in Lehmann 1846] CC87

Corynotheca micrantha (Lindley) Druce 1917 var. micrantha CC87 [incl. Caesia dichotoma Muell. 1859 CC87, Co. dichotoma (Muell.) Muell. ex Benth. 1878 CC87, Anthericum flexuosum B78, Thysanotus micranthus var. major Endl. in Lehmann 1846 CC87]

Corynotheca micrantha var. acanthoclada (Muell.) Henderson 1987 [=Caesia acanthoclada Muell. 1859, Co. acanthoclada (Muell.) Muell. ex Benth. 1878] CC87

Dichopogon fimbriatus (Br.) Macbr. 1918 [=Arthropodium fimbriatum Br. 1810 CC87, Anthericum fimbriatum (Br.) Steudel 1821 (nom. illeg.); incl. Ar. laxum Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1829, *Dichopogon sieberianus Kunth 1843, D. undulatus Regel 1853] CC87

Dichopogon strictus (Br.) Baker 1876 CC87 [=Arthropodium strictum Br. 1810 CC87; incl. D. setosus Kunth 1843 (n. d.) B78, CC87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[TS03] Treutlein, J., G. F. Smith, B.-E. van Wyk & M. Wink. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Asphodelaceae (subfamily Aloooideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences (rbcL, matK) and from genomic fingerprinting (ISSR). Taxon 52: 193–207.

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