Dasypoda hirtipes, copyright Asterix93.

Belongs within: Apoidea.
Contains: Megachilidae, Apidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Stenotritidae, Colletidae, Melittinae.

The Anthophila, bees, are a diverse and well-marked clade of herbivorous wasps, characterised primarily by the presence of at least some plumose hairs on the body (though these may be few in some groups). Particularly dense patches of these plumose hairs may form a scopa used for carrying pollen. Bees have been divided between long-tongued (Megachilidae and Apidae, with the first two segments of the labial palpus elongate and flattened) and short-tongued groups (the remaining families, with the palpus segments cylindrical and not strongly differentiated); however, phylogenetic studies indicate that the long-tongued clade is nested within the short-tongued paraphylum. The earliest definite evidence for bees in the fossil record comes from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) (Engel 2001).

The Melittidae are short-tongued bees with a scopa developed on the metatibia and metabasitarsus. They resemble the long-tongued bees in having the mesocoxae fully exposed whereas other short-tongued families have them partially concealed (Engel 2001).

Characters (from Engel 2001, as Apiformes): Some setae branched or plumose; subantennal sutures internally connected to fan-shaped sheet of tentorium; labrum thickened basally and attached at clypeal margin; proboscidial fossa opened onto posterior surface of head capsule; cardo not broadened apically, approximately parallel-sided; suspensorium of paraglossa with sparse setae or bristles; mesotibial comb present; dorsoventral length of mesocoxa about equal to distance from summit of mesocoxa to hind wing base; metabasitarsus broader than following tarsal segments, without concavity or strigil; cu-a of hind wing shorter than second abscissa of M+Cu; T7 of female divided into two hemitergites.

<==Anthophila [Acutilingues, Andrenetae, Andreniformes, Apiariae, Apiformes, Melissomorpha]SN18
    |  |  `--ApidaeSN18
    |  `--+--AndrenidaeSN18
    |     `--+--HalictidaeSN18
    |        `--+--StenotritidaeSN18
    |           `--ColletidaeSN18
    `--Melittidae [Dasypodainae]SN18
         |  `--MeganomiinaeCSD10
         |       |--Meganomia binghami (Cockerell 1909)CSD10
         |       |--CeratomoniaE01
         |       |--UromoniaE01
         |       `--PseudophilanthusE01
            |    |--SambaE01
            |    `--HaplomelittaE01
                 |--Capicola richtersveldensisE01, BD17
                 |    |--H. larreae Cockerell 1907CSD10
                 |    `--H. regularisHR11
                 `--Dasypoda Latreille 1802L02
                      |--D. argentata Panzer 1809CSD10
                      |--D. distinctaR26
                      |--D. hirtipesR35 [=Andrena hirtipesL02]
                      |--D. planipesR26
                      |--D. plumipesR35 [=Andrena plumipesL02]
                      `--D. visnagaBD17
Anthophila incertae sedis:
  Bombusoides Motschulsky 1856E01
    `--*B. mengei Motschulsky 1856 (n. d.)E01
  Nogueirapis silaceaE01 [=Trigona (Nogueirapis) silaceaP92, Plebeia silaceaP92]
    |--L. bomboidesR35
    `--L. difformisR26
  Clisodon terminalisR35
  Eriades truncorumR35
  Protoandrena meridionalisR35
  Scraptioides eupheaeR35
  Alloperdita novaeangliaeR35
  Hemisa tricolorR13
  Paleomelitta Engel 2001 [Paleomelittidae]E01
    `--*P. nigripennis Engel 2001E01
  Protodufourea wasbaueriM76
  Conanthalictus seminigerM76
  Hemihalictus lustrans (Ckll. 1897)C00
  Phileremulus nanus Ckll. 1895C00
  Synhalonia stretchiiS72
  Heliophila bimaculataR26

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[C00] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1900. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 401–416.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[M76] Moldenke, A. R. 1976. California pollination ecology and vegetation types. Phytologia 34 (4): 305–361.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.

[S72] Schlising, R. A. 1972. Foraging and nest provisioning behavior of the oligolectic bee, Diadasia bituberculata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 175–188.

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