Anthophorini

Digger bee Anthophora abrupta, copyright Judy Gallagher.

Belongs within: Apidae.
Contains: Amegilla.

The Anthophorini are robust, hairy solitary bees bearing distally papillate wings.

Characters (from Michener 1965): Clypeus strongly protuberant so that, seen from below, lateral parts are bent back parallel to long axis of body; marginal cell shorter than distance from its apex to wing tip, apex of cell rounded and separated from wing margin; stigma small, not extending into marginal cell beyond base of vein r; second abscissa of vein M+Cu of posterior wing at least as long as cu-v; scopa present; claws cleft in males, with slender inner tooth in females; pygidial plate present in female.

<==Anthophorini [Anthophorae]CSD10
    |--+--Deltoptila aurulentocaudata (Dours 1869)CSD10
    |  `--+--Habropoda laboriosa (Fabricius 1804)CSD10
    |     `--Pachymelus peringueyi (Friese 1911)CSD10
    `--+--AmegillaCSD10
       `--Anthophora Latreille 1803 (nom. cons.)CSD10, R35 [incl. Podalirius Latreille 1802R35; Podalirii]
            |--A. abruptaR35
            |--A. acervorum (Linnaeus 1758)R35, L58 [=Apis acervorumL02, Podalirius acervorumL02]
            |--A. affinisL49
            |--A. atroalbaR35
            |--A. biciliataL49
            |--A. bomboides [incl. A. bomboides var. canadensis, A. insularis, A. sodalis]C00
            |--‘Podalirius’ borealisMS01
            |--A. calcarataL49
            |--A. cingulataR35 [=Podalirius cingulatusC08]
            |--‘Apis’ crassipes [=Podalirius crassipes]L02
            |--A. disparL49
            |--A. dutiellaR44
            |--A. edwardsiiH91
            |--A. engganensisR44
            |--A. ephippiumL49
            |--A. ferrugineaL49
            |--A. flabelliferaL49
            |--A. flammeozonataR44
            |--A. fulvitarsisR35 [=Podalirius fulvitarsisR13; incl. A. personataR35]
            |--A. furcataR13
            |--A. hinsleyellaR44
            |--‘Andrena’ hirsuta [=Podalirius hirsuta]L02
            |--A. hispanica [=Megilla hispanica]L49
            |--‘Apis’ lanipes [=Podalirius lanipes]L02
            |--A. lesquerellaeCC01
            |--A. lieftinckiellaR44
            |--A. liturataL49
            |--A. maculifronsC01
            |--A. nasutaL49
            |--A. neomexicana Cockerell 1900R35, C00 [=A. bomboides var. neomexicanaC00]
            |--A. nidulans [=Centris nidulans]L49
            |--A. nigrocinctaL49
            |--A. nigrofulvaL49
            |--A. nigromaculata Lucas 1847E12
            |--A. occidentalis Cresson 1869C00
            |--A. oraniensisL49
            |--A. parietinaR35 [=Podalirius parietinusR13]
            |--A. pennataL49
            |--A. perzonataR44
            |--A. pilipesR35 [=Apis pilipesL02, Eucera (Anthophora) pilipesG20, Megilla pilipesL49, Podalirius pilipesL02]
            |--A. plumipesPK17
            |--A. porterae Cockerell 1900C00
            |--A. pubescensL49
            |--A. quadricolor [=Megilla quadricolor]L49
            |--A. rauiR35
            |--‘Podalirius’ retusus [incl. P. retusus var. aestivalis]MS01
            |--A. romandeiR35
            |--‘Apis’ rotundata [=Podalirius rotundata]L02
            |--A. senescensR13
            |--A. simillimaR35
            |--A. standfordianaR35
            |--A. urbana Cresson 1878CSD10 [=A. (Amegilla) urbanaC01; incl. A. (A.) urbana var. alamosanaC01]
            |--A. ventilabrisL49
            |--‘Apis’ versicolor [=Podalirius versicolor]L02
            |--A. vigilansR44
            |--A. vulpina [=Podalirius vulpinus]R13
            `--A. zonataR35
Anthophorini incertae sedis:
  Anthophorites Heer 1849E01
    `--*A. mellona Heer 1849E01
  Paleohabropoda oudardiCSD10
  EmphoropsisCC01
    |--*E. floridanus [=Habropoda floridana]CC01
    |--E. miserabilis [=Habropoda miserabilis]CC01
    |--E. morrisoni [=Habropoda morrisoni]CC01
    |--E. pallidaC90
    |--E. rugosissimaS72
    `--E. salviarum [=Habropoda salviarum]CC01
  Entechnia taureaCC01, R35 [=Melitoma taureaR35]
  Anthophoroides Cockerell & Cockerell 1901CC01
    `--*A. vallorum [=Podalirius vallorum]CC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[C08] Cheel, E. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 287.

[C00] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1900. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 401–416.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[CC01] Cockerell, T. D. A., & W. P. Cockerell. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—IX. On certain genera of bees. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 46–50.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H91] Houston, T. F. 1991. Ecology and behaviour of the bee Amegilla (Asaropoda) dawsoni (Rayment) with notes on a related species (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (3): 535–553.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R44] Rayment, T. 1944. A critical revision of species in the zonata group of Anthophora by new characters (part I). Dobutu Gaku—Iho 1 (1): 1–33.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S72] Schlising, R. A. 1972. Foraging and nest provisioning behavior of the oligolectic bee, Diadasia bituberculata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 175–188.

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