Anthrax maculatus, photographed by Michael Jefferies.

Belongs within: Anthracinae.

The Anthracini are a cosmopolitan group of bee flies, characterised by the presence of an apical circlet of hairs around the compacted, often onion-shaped antenna. Recorded hosts are mostly aculeate wasps and bees though at least two species, Anthrax georgicus and A. gideon, attack larvae of Cicindelidae (Greathead et al. 2009). Anthracins include the cosmopolitan genus Anthrax, many species of which have the wings infuscated to varying degrees. The large flies (sixteen to eighteen millimetres in length) belonging to the genus Xenox in North and northern South America have a closed cell in the wing posterior to cell dm that is absent in the smaller Anthrax (Kits et al. 2008).

Characters (from Lambkin et al. 2003): Antennal basal stylomere bearing apical stylomere and circlet of hairs; R2+3 arising from R with distinct basal 90° bend at i-r crossvein, squama fringed with scales; pulvilli normal, large flattened membranous structures, almost as long as tarsal claws; laterotergite and mediotergites bare.

    |--Brachyanax aterLYG03
    |    |--M. aureusR26
    |    `--M. obscurusR26 [=Cytherea obscuraL02, Anthrax (Mulio) obscurusG20]
    |    |--X. habrosusGEEL09
    |    |--X. nigritusGEEL09
    |    `--X. tigrinusKME08
         |--A. albofasciatusGEEL09
         |--A. analisA71
         |--A. argentifrons Macquart 1847E12
         |--A. argyropygusGEEL09
         |--A. blandusK01
         |--A. cathetodiathmosGEEL09
         |--A. cintalapaGEEL09
         |--A. dorycus Boisduval 1835B35
         |--A. etruscaR26
         |--A. fasciventris Macquart 1847E12
         |--A. flavusK01
         |--A. fulvipes Loew 1860R01
         |--A. georgicusGEEL09
         |--A. gideonGEEL09
         |--A. irroratusGEEL09
         |--A. italicaR26
         |--A. ixionK01
         |--A. leucopygaBM76
         |--A. maculatusLYG03
         |--A. maurusK01
         |--A. midasGEEL09
         |--A. minuta Macquart 1847E12
         |--A. morioG20
         |--A. oedipusGEEL09
         |--A. pauperKME08
         |--A. piceaKME08
         |--A. plutoKME08
         |--A. quinquefasciatusK01
         |--A. sinuataR35
         |--A. stellansKME08
         |--A. trifasciataR13
         |--A. variaR26
         `--A. varipennis Macquart 1847E12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GEEL09] Greathead, D. J., N. L. Evenhuis & C. J. Einicker Lamas. 2009. Bombyliidae (bee flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 565–576. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KME08] Kits, J. H., S. A. Marshall & N. L. Evenhuis. 2008. The bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) of Ontario, with a key to the species of eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 6: 1–52.

[LYG03] Lambkin, C. L., D. K. Yeates & D. J. Greathead. 2003. An evolutionary radiation of beeflies in semi-arid Australia: systematics of the Exoprosopini (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 735–891.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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