Anthribidae

Lichenobius littoralis, copyright Landcare Research New Zealand.

Belongs within: Phytophaga.
Contains: Araecerini, Trigonorhinus, Anthribus.

The Anthribidae are a group of weevils with a flattened rostrum retaining a visible labrum, and non-elbowed antennae (Britton 1970). Larvae mostly feed on dead wood, galls and fungi, except those of the Urodontinae that feed on the soft stems and seeds of monocotyledons. Subfamilies Choraginae and Anthribinae bear mycetangial pockets on the mandibles that are absent in Urodontinae. Members of the subfamily Choraginae have the antennae inserted on the anterior face of the rostrum or head whereas Anthribinae have the antennae inserted laterally or ventrally on the rostrum. Within Choraginae, Choragini have elongate-oval eyes that approach each other dorsally whereas the eyes are rounded in Araecerini and Cisanthribini (Valentine 2002).

Characters (from Britton 1970): Rostrum, broad, short or elongate, flattened; antennae not elbowed, scape shorter than pedicel, short with three-segmented club, or elongate without club or with only slightly marked club; labrum visible; maxillae with lacinia present; maxillary palpi slender, four-segmented, flexible; mentum large, pedunculate, ligula large, sclerotised; gular sutures not visible; prothorax with lateral margins present on basal half; fore coxal cavities contiguous, coxae globular; mid coxal cavities broadly closed by sterna; abdomen with four sternites connate, apical sternite only movable; elytra with inner flange below shoulder; pygidium largely exposed; tarsi with third segment deeply bilobed, embraced by prominent angles of second; claws sometimes toothed beneath. Larva curved, fleshy, widest in middle; head usually exserted, hypognathous; antennae one-segmented or absent; legs absent or with reduced segments.

<==Anthribidae [Anthotribidae, Choragidae, Platyrrhinidae, Platystomoidea]
|--Urodontinae [Urodontidae]MW15
| |--UrodonC01
| | |--U. pygmaeusC01
| | |--U. rufipesLC40
| | `--U. suturalisLC40
| |--Bruchela [Bruchelinae]B14
| |--CercomorphusB14
| |--UrodontellusB14
| | |--U. lilii (Fåhraeus 1839)B14
| | |--U. vermiculatusB14
| | `--U. vicinialiliiB14
| `--Urodontus mesemoidesLB20, MW15
`--+--EupanteosLB20
`--+--TelalaLB20
`--+--ChoraginaeB14
| |--AraeceriniLB20
| |--CisanthribiniV02
| | |--CisanthribusV02
| | `--Sicanthus Valentine 1999V02
| | `--S. rhizophorae Valentine 1999V02
| `--ChoraginiB14
| |--Apteroxenus globulosus Valentine 1979B14
| |--Choragus Kirby 1819 [incl. Alticopus Villa & Villa 1833]V02
| |--Euxenus LeConte 1876 [incl. Holostilpna Jordan 1907]V02
| |--Euxenulus Valentine 1960V02
| | `--E. piceus (LeConte 1878)V02
| `--Pseudochoragus Petri 1912V02
| `--P. nitens (LeConte 1884)V02
`--AnthribinaeMW15
| i. s.: Cacephatus Blackburn 1900M94
| |--*C. sericeus Blackburn 1900M94
| |--C. aucklandicusM94
| |--C. huttoniM94
| `--C. inornatusM94
| Euciodes Pascoe 1866M94
| `--*E. suturalis Pascoe 1866M94
| Eucorynus Schoenherr 1826M94
| |--*E. crassicornis [=Anthribus crassicornis]M94
| `--E. mastersi Blackburn 1900M94
| Phloeobius Schoenherr 1823LB20, M94
| |--P. gigas (Fabricius 1775)M94 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. alternans [=Anthribus alternans]LC40
| `--P. longicornis [=Anthribus longicornis]LC40
| Dendropemon albopictusLE23, LB20
|--Discotenes Labram & Imhoff 1841 [incl. Phanosolena Schaeffer 1904; Discotenini]V02
|--Ischnocerus Schoenherr 1839 [incl. Meconemus Labram & Imhoff 1839; Ischnocerini]V02
|--Allandrus LeConte 1876 [incl. Tropiderinus Reitter 1916; Allandrini]V02
|--TrigonorhinusV02
|--AnthribusV02
|--Stenocerus Schoenherr 1826 [Stenocerini]V02
| |--S. frontalis [=Anthribus frontalis]LC40
| |--S. garnotiiB35
| `--S. longulus Jekel 1855V02
|--PiesocoryniniV02
| |--Piesocorynus Dejean 1834 [=Piezocorynus Schoenherr 1839; incl. Camptotropis Jekel 1855]V02
| `--Brachycorynus Valentine 1999V02
|--PlatyrhininiV02
| |--Goniocloeus Jordan 1904 [incl. Strabus Jekel 1860 non Gerstaecker 1860]V02
| | `--G. bimaculatus (Olivier 1795)V02
| |--Trachytropis Jordan 1904V02
| | `--T. arizonicus (Sleeper 1954)V02
| `--Platyrhinus latirostris (see below for synonymy)LC40
|--PlatystominiV02
| |--Platystomos albinusGC-P14
| |--Phoenicobiella Cockerell 1906 [incl. Phoenicobius LeConte 1876 non Moerch 1852]V02
| `--Toxonotus Lacordaire 1866 [incl. Neanthribus Jordan 1906, Pseudanthribus Pierce 1930]V02
| `--T. cornutusV02
|--Euparius Schoenherr 1823 [incl. Caccorhinus Sharp 1891, Cratoparis Dejean 1834; Cratoparini]V02
| |--E. callosusLC40 [=Anthribus callosusLC40, Cratoparis callosusM87]
| |--‘Cratoparis’ ceroderesM87
| |--‘Cacorhinus’ lateripictusLB91
| |--E. marmoreusV02
| `--E. zebra [=Anthribus zebra]LC40
|--ZygaenodiniV02
| |--Exechesops leucopis (Jordan 1928)B14
| |--Ormiscus Waterhouse 1845 (see below for synonymy)V02
| |--Eusphyrus LeConte 1876 [incl. Opisthotropis Hoffmann & Tempere 1954]V02
| `--Araeoderes Schaeffer 1906V02
| `--A. texanus Schaeffer 1906V02
|--TropideriniV02
| |--Eurymycter LeConte 1876V02
| |--Tropideres Schoenherr 1823V02
| | |--T. albirostris [=Anthribus albirostris, Macrocephalus albirostris]LC40
| | |--T. lacteocaudatus Fairmaire 1889F89
| | `--T. pudens [=Anthribus pudens]LC40
| `--Gonotropis Leconte 1876V02
| `--G. gibbosus LeConte 1876V02
|--BasitropidiniV02
| |--BasitropisZ94
| |--Eugonus Schoenherr 1833 [incl. Phaenisor Motschoulsky 1874, Schimatocheilus Fahraeus 1839]V02
| | |--E. bicolor Valentine 1972V02
| | `--E. virgatus [=Anthribus virgatus]LC40
| `--Phaenithon Schoenherr 1823 [incl. Camaroderes Jekel 1855, Griburiosoma Schaeffer 1906]V02
| |--P. figuratum [=Anthribus figuratus]LC40
| `--P. platanum (Schaeffer 1906)V02
`--GymnognathiniB14
|--XynotropisB14
|--Gymnognathus Schoenherr 1826 [incl. Analotes Schoenherr 1839]V02
| `--G. signatus [=Anthribus signatus]LC40
`--LichenobiusB14
|--L. littoralis Holloway 1970B14
|--L. maritimusB14
`--L. silvicolaB14

Anthribidae incertae sedis:
Notochoragus crassus (Sharp 1876)E02
Anthribites rechenbergi Kolbe 1888 (n. d.)Z02
Phymatus phymatodesWFS04
Pleosporius bullatusWFS04
Sharpius brouni [=Anthribus brouni]B88
CyptoxenusL88
Ancyclotropis waterhouseiLB91
XenocerusM87
|--X. arciferus Blanch 1853M86
|--X. leucogrammus Mots. 1874M87
|--X. nativitatis Gahan 1900JG19
`--X. saperdoides [=Anthribus saperdoides]LC40
LitocerusM86
|--L. fasciatus Macleay 1886M86
|--L. histrio [=Anthribus histrio]LC40
|--L. jordani Gahan 1900JG19
|--L. parvulus Macleay 1886M86
|--L. perplexusM86
`--L. subconvexus Macleay 1886M86
NessiaraM86
|--N. irrorata Macleay 1886M86
`--N. unituberculata Macleay 1886M86
Bythoprotus lineatusM87
Genethila retusaM87
Macrotrichius niveinasus Mots. 1874M87
Ethneca bakewelliM87
TropidoderesM87
|--T. albuginosus Erichs. 1842M87
`--T. musivus Erichs. 1842M87
EcelonerusM87
|--E. albopictus Pascoe 1860M87
|--E. insularisM87
`--E. subfasciatusM87
BaseotropisM87
|--B. ingrata Pascoe 1859M87
|--B. peregrina Pascoe 1859M87
`--B. solitaria Pascoe 1860M87
OzotomerusZ93
|--O. bipunctatusZ93
`--O. waterhousei (Pascoe 1859) [=Dipieza waterhousei]M87
Teratanthribus monstrosusZ93
Autotropis modestaM94
Dendrotrogus colligensB70
PseudomecorhisP92
AcorynidesF89
|--Merarius Fairmaire 1889F89
| `--*M. davidis Fairmaire 1889F89
`--Acorynus sulcirostris [=Anthribus sulcirostris]LC40
Apatenia apicalis Gahan 1900JG19

Ormiscus Waterhouse 1845 [=Hormiscus Gemminger & Harold 1872; incl. Entomops Lacordaire 1866, Gonops LeConte 1876, Toxotropis LeConte 1876]V02

Phloeobius gigas (Fabricius 1775)M94 [=Anthribus gigasM94; incl. A. griseusM94, *Phloeobius griseusM94, M87]

Platyrhinus latirostris [=Anthribus latirostris; incl. Platycerus costirostris, Curculio retinosus]LC40

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

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[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[M87] Masters, G. 1887. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part VI. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 979–1036.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[V02] Valentine, B. D. 2002. Anthribidae Billberg 1820. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 695–700. CRC Press.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P.,  & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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