American pipit Anthus rubescens, copyright Jonathan Hornung.

Belongs within: Motacillidae.

Anthus, the pipits, is a cosmopolitan genus of streaked and mottled brown, slender birds with thin bills, medium to long tails, and relatively long legs with elongated hind claws.

<==Anthus Bechstein 1805 CC10
|–+–+–A. furcatus JF06
|  |  `–+–A. lutescens BKB15
|  |     |    |–A. l. lutescens L03
|  |     |    `–A. l. parvus Lawrence 1865 [=A. (Notiocorys) parvus] L03
|  |     `–A. spragueii BKB15
|  `–+–+–A. antarcticus JF06
|     |  `–A. correndera JT12
|     `–+–A. bogotensis JF06
|        |    |–A. b. bogotensis L03
|        |    `–A. b. meridae Zimmer 1953 L03
|        `–A. hellmayri Hartert in Hartert & Venturi 1909 BKB15, L03
`–+–A. gustavi JT12
`–+–+–A. hodgsoni JT12
|  `–A. trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
`–+–A. cervinus (Pallas 1811) JT12, L03 [=Motacilla cervina M02; incl. A. anadyrensis Allen 1905 L03]
`–+–A. roseatus JF06
`–+–A. rubescens JT12
`–+–*A. pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
`–+–A. petrosus (Montagu 1798) JT12, L03 [incl. A. spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert 1905 L03]
`–A. spinoletta (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03
|–A. s. spinoletta [incl. A. hiemalis Brehm 1831, A. aquaticus major Brehm 1856] L03
|–A. s. coutelli Audouin in Savigny 1828 [incl. A. orientalis Brehm 1855] L03
`–A. s. japonicus SA82 [=A. rubescens japonicus VP89]

Anthus incertae sedis:
A. australis Vieillot 1818 CC10 [=A. novaeseelandiae australis WS48]
|–A. a. australis (see below for synonymy) L03
|–A. a. bilbali Mathews 1912 L03
|–A. a. bistriatus (Swainson 1837) [incl. Australanthus australis flindersi Mathews 1923] L03
`–A. a. rogersi Mathews 1913 L03
A. bosniaskii Pycraft 1909 M02
A. chacoensis Zimmer 1952 [=A. chii chacoensis] L03
A. chloris Lichtenstein 1842 [incl. A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03
A. gutturalis JT12
A. hoeschi JT12
A. littoralis Brehm 1823 L03
A. maculatus Hodgs. 1844 M01
A. malayensis W66
A. nattereri JT12
A. nilghiriensis JT12
A. pallidiventris JT12
0–A. sylvanus JF06
`–+–A. hoesci JF06
`–+–A. crenatus JF06
`–A. lineiventris JF06

Anthus australis australis Vieillot 1818 [incl. A. australis adelaidensis Mathews 1912, A. australis hartogi Mathews in Carter & Mathews 1917, A. australis montebelli Montague 1913, A. australis queenslandica Mathews 1912, A. australis subaustralis Mathews 1912, A. novaeseelandiae subaustralis, A. australis subrufus Mathews 1912, A. australis tribulationis Mathews 1912] L03

*Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 [=Alauda pratensis CC10; incl. An. alaudarius Brehm 1841 L03, An. lichtensteinii Brehm 1824 L03, An. limicola Brehm 1841 L03, An. pratensis minor Brehm 1856 L03, An. montanellus Brehm 1824 L03, An. musicus Brehm 1831 L03]

Anthus similis hararensis Neumann 1906 [=A. nicholsoni hararensis; incl. A. nicholsoni longirostris Neumann 1905 non A. obscurus longirostris Brehm 1856, A. similis neumannianus Collin & Hartert 1927] L03

Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 [=Alauda trivialis M01; incl. A. herbarum Brehm 1831 L03, A. arboreus luteigularis Brehm 1856 L03, A. arboreus saxorum Brehm 1856 L03]

Anthus vaalensis neumanni Meinertzhagen 1920 [=A. leucophrys neumanni, A. leucophrys angolensis Neumann 1906 non A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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