Aphididae

 Poplar-lettuce gall aphid Pemphigus bursarius, copyright Rasbak.

Belongs within: Aphidoidea.
Contains: Cinara, Aphidini.

The Aphididae, aphids, are a morphologically diverse group of phytophagous bugs with differentiated parthenogenetic and sexually reproducing generations. Commonly, populations will go through several parthenogenetic all-female generations before producing a single sexual generation at the end of the growing season. In some species living in milder climates or more protected environments, populations may persist parthenogenetically without production of sexual individuals (Carver et al. 1991). Parthenogenetic individuals are usually wingless and sexually reproducing individuals alate. Parthenogenetic females are viviparous whereas sexual females are oviparous. Some species cause gall formation on their plant hosts.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Antennae 4–6-segmented; apical segment usually with well-delimited processus terminalis; one primary rhinarium basal to processus terminalis and one subapically on penultimate segment; other (secondary, adult) rhinaria present in most alatae and some apterae, usually concentrated on segment III. Eyes of apterae compound or 3-faceted. Siphunculi and cauda (modified apical segment) usually present; paired siphunculi marginally on or near T5, varying from rings to long, cylindrical tubes. Fore wings, if present, tectiform or, less often, held flat in repose; RP mostly present, M simple or 1- or 2-branched, CuA1 and CuA2 usually separate. Hind wings mostly with 2 oblique veins.

<==Aphididae [Eriosomatidae, Pemphigidae]
    |--Lachninae [Lachnidae]PS96
    |    |--CinaraCGW91
    |    |--Cedrobium laporteiPS96
    |    |--SchizolachnusPS96
    |    |--TuberolachnusPS96
    |    `--Trama taraxaci Shinji 1930RD77, TYM08
    |--PemphiginaeGE05
    |    |--Aploneura lentisciM83
    |    |--Smynthurodes betaeWEE70
    |    |--GeoicaWEE70
    |    |    |--G. lucifugaWEE70
    |    |    `--G. utriculariaW87
    |    |--EriosomaWEE70
    |    |    |--E. lanigerumCGW91
    |    |    |--E. oleaeR26
    |    |    `--E. pyricolaWEE70
    |    `--PemphigusCGW91
    |         |--P. betaeRu96
    |         |--P. bursariusCGW91
    |         |--P. nidificusposchingeriR13
    |         |--P. populicaulisSB80
    |         |--P. populitransversusSS74
    |         `--P. populivenaeS87
    |--Hormaphidinae [Hormaphidae, Hormaphididae, Mormaphidae]GE05
    |    |--Ceratovacuna lanigeraCGW91, MHG04
    |    |--OregmaWEE70
    |    |--Hormaphis hamamelidisRD77
    |    |--ElectrocorniaP92
    |    |--Petiolaphis Hong & Wang 1990H02
    |    |    `--*P. laiyangensis Hong & Wang 1990H02
    |    |--Petiolaphioides Hong & Wang 1990H02
    |    |    `--*P. shandongensis Hong & Wang 1990H02
    |    |--Yueaphis Wang 1993H02
    |    |    `--*Y. fushunensis Wang 1993H02
    |    |--PseudoregmaCGW91
    |    |    |--P. bambucicolaGE05
    |    |    `--P. panicolaCGW91
    |    `--CerataphisWEE70
    |         |--C. brasiliensis (Hempel 1901) (see below for synonymy)Ra96
    |         |--C. formosana Takahashi 1924Ra96
    |         |--C. lataniaeRa96
    |         `--C. orchidearumRa96
    |--AphidinaeGE05
    |    |  i. s.: Aphidocallis caudatusGE05
    |    |         Cavariella aegopodiiCGW91
    |    |         AulacorthumCGW91
    |    |           |--A. circumflexumA71
    |    |           `--A. solaniCGW91
    |    |         BrachycaudusCGW91
    |    |           |--B. carduiPSM96
    |    |           |--B. helichrysiCGW91
    |    |           |--B. persicaeCGW91
    |    |           |--B. (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner 1931)MF05
    |    |           `--B. tragopogonisPSM96
    |    |         Hyalopterus pruniCGW91
    |    |         MacrosiphumCGW91
    |    |           |--M. albifronsPSM96
    |    |           |--M. californicumPSM96
    |    |           |--M. colylicola Shinji 1930TYM08
    |    |           |--M. euphorbiaeCGW91
    |    |           |--M. miscanthiWEE70
    |    |           `--M. (Macrosiphum) rosae (Linnaeus 1758)MF05
    |    |         Metopolophium dirhodumCGW91
    |    |         MyzusCGW91
    |    |           |--M. ascalonicusCGW91
    |    |           |--M. cerasiPSM96
    |    |           |--M. cymbalariaeCGW91
    |    |           |--M. inuzakurae Shinji 1930TYM08
    |    |           |--M. ornatusCGW91
    |    |           `--M. persicaeCGW91
    |    |         Capitophorus elaeagniCGW91
    |    |         Hyperomyzus lactucaeCGW91
    |    |         RhopalosiphumCGW91
    |    |           |--R. enigmae [incl. R. enigmae var. parvae]M37
    |    |           |--R. insertumCGW91
    |    |           |--R. maidisCGW91
    |    |           |--R. nymphaeaeCGW91
    |    |           |--R. padiCGW91
    |    |           |--R. prunifoliaeM37
    |    |           |--R. rufiabdominalisCGW91
    |    |           `--R. subterraneum Mason 1937M37
    |    |         Neomyzus circumflexusWEE70
    |    |         Brevicoryne brassicaeWEE70
    |    |         Lipaphis erysimiWEE70
    |    |         ChaetosiphonWEE70
    |    |           |--C. fragaefoliiWEE70
    |    |           `--C. tetrahodumPSM96
    |    |         Elatobium abietinumWEE70
    |    |         Idiopterus nephrelepidisWEE70
    |    |         Shinjia pteridifoliaeWEE70
    |    |         Longiunguis sacchariWEE70
    |    `--AphidiniNNA-ZPH05
    `--Drepanosiphinae [Callaphididae, Drepanosiphidae, Sinaphididae]GE05
         |  i. s.: Jurocallis Shaposhnikov 1979RJ93, HW11
         |           `--J. longipesRJ93
         |         CeriferellaCGW91
         |         NeuquenaphisCGW91
         |         Taiwanaphis [incl. Sensoriaphis]CGW91
         |           |--T. furciferaCGW91
         |           `--T. tasmaniaeCGW91 [=Sensoriaphis tasmaniaeWEE70]
         |         NeophyllaphisCGW91
         |           |--N. brimblecombeiCGW91
         |           `--N. gingerensisCGW91
         |         Leptocallites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*L. xilutianensis Hong 2002H02
         |         Megalomytisites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*M. lontitibiales Hong 2002H02
         |         Fushunocallites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*F. wanghuacunensis Hong 2002H02
         |         Huaxiacallites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*H. reptantes Hong 2002H02
         |         Sinocallis Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*S. clypeolata Hong 2002H02
         |         Eocallites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*E. mallicaudatus Hong 2002H02
         |         Polychaitocallis Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*P. ovata Hong 2002H02
         |         Xilutianocallis Wang 1991H02
         |           `--*X. yangi Wang 1991H02
         |         BalticaphisH02
         |         BalticornaraphisH02
         |         LarssonaphisH02
         |         Succaphis Heie 1967H02
         |           `--*S. holgeri Heie 1967H02
         |         SymydobiusH02
         |         EuceraphisH02
         |         Penaphis Lin 1980H02
         |           |--*P. circa Lin 1980H02
         |           |--‘Sinaphis’ epichare Zhang et al. 1989 [incl. Penaphis nanligezhuanensis Lin 1995]H02
         |           `--P. peregrina (Zhang et al. 1989) [=Tartaraphis peregrina]H02
         |         MyzocallisRD77
         |         AniferellaP92
         |         ConicaudusP92
         |         ElectromyzusP92
         |         MegantennaphisP92
         |         Mengeaphis glandulosaP92
         |         SternaphisP92
         |         TertiaphisP92
         |         ZymusP92
         |--Palaeosiphon [Palaeosiphonini]H02
         |--Megapodaphis [Macropodaphidini]H02
         |--Palaeophyllaphis Heie 1967 [Phyllaphidini]H02
         |    `--*P. longirostris Heie 1967H02
         |--LizeriniP92
         |    |--LizeriusCGW91
         |    |--Mindazerius dominicanus Heie & Poinar 1988P92
         |    `--PaoleillaP92
         `--DrepanosiphoniniH02
              |--Drepanosiphon platanoidisRD77
              |--OligocallisH02
              |--MeganotennaphisH02
              `--EllectrocallisH02
Aphididae incertae sedis:
  AcyrthosiphonCGW91
    |--A. kondoiCGW91
    |--A. lactucaePSM96
    `--A. pisumCGW91
  UroleuconLD04
    |--U. cirsiiPSM96
    |--U. formosanusC96
    |--U. ivaePSM96
    |--U. russellaePSM96
    `--U. sonchiPSM96
  MacrosiphoniellaF05
    |--M. ludovicianaePSM96
    `--M. madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco 2005F05
  Pseudoprotaphis Kadyrbekov 2001F05
    `--*P. erigerontis (Holman 1966) [=Aphis (Protaphis) erigerontis]F05
  Tuberocephalus Shinji 1929TYM08
    `--T. artemisiae Shinji 1929TYM08
  Caraviella azamii Shinji 1930TYM08
  Eumyzus Shinji 1929TYM08
  Amphorophora katsurae Shinji 1930TYM08
  IllinoiaTYM08
    |--I. kerriae Shinji 1930TYM08
    `--I. rhododendriPSM96
  Macrocaudus Shinji 1930TYM08
    `--M. phaseoli Shinji 1930TYM08
  Microtarsus Shinji 1929TYM08
    `--M. pterydifoliae Shinji 1929TYM08
  Anuraphis mumecola Shinji 1930TYM08
  Pseudomegoura Shinji 1929TYM08
  Somaphis Shinji 1929TYM08
  Trichonosiphoniella Shinji 1929TYM08
  Tuberocorpus Shinji 1929TYM08
  Microlophium carnosumV09
  Pterochlorus rosaeH01
  Chromaphis juglandicolaKU07
  Panaphis juglandisKU07
  CalaphisCGW91
  Therioaphis trifoliiCGW91
    |--T. t. trifoliiPSM96
    `--T. t. maculataPSM96
  Neotoxoptera oliveriCGW91
  SitobionCGW91
    |--S. avenaeK09
    `--S. clydesmithiPSM96
  Pentalonia nigronervosaCGW91
  Megoura viciaeN70
  Kallistaphis basalisWEE70
  Huaxiaphis Hong 2002H02
    `--*H. gracilicornuta Hong 2002H02
  Eomakrosoura Hong 2002H02
    `--*E. expansirostrata Hong 2002H02
  Liaoaphis Hong 2002H02
    `--*L. furvifemoralis Hong 2002H02
  Sunaphis Hong & Wang 1990H02
    |--*S. shandongensis Hong & Wang 1990H02
    `--S. laiyangensis Hong & Wang 1990H02
  Brachyunguis Das 1918RH96
    |--B. (Brachyunguis)RH96
    |    |--*B. (B.) harmalae Das 1918RH96
    |    |--B. (B.) bahamondesi Remaudière & Halbert 1996RH96
    |    |--B. (B.) bishopi Remaudière & Halbert 1996RH96
    |    `--B. (B.) bonnevillensis (Knowlton 1928)RH96
    `--B. (Xerophilaphis Nevsky 1928)RH96
         |--B. (*X.) saxaulica (Nevsky 1928) [=*Xerophilaphis saxaulica]RH96
         |--B. (X.) blanchardi Remaudière & Bahamondes 1987RH96
         `--B. (X.) tetrapteralis (Cockerell 1902)RH96
  Diuraphis noxiaT96
  Tetraneura ulmiW87
  FordaW87
    |--F. formicariaW87
    `--F. marginataW87
  DysaphisRD77
    |--D. crataegiRD77
    `--D. plantagineaACW01
  Schizoneura corniRD77, R13
  TamaliaRD77
  HamamelistesRD77
  Phorodon humuliRD77
  Palaeoforda taymyrensisP92, RJ93
  BaltichaitophorusP92
  PseudamphorophoraP92
  SuccinaphisP92
  DoralisR26
    |--D. dauciR26
    |--D. piniR26
    |--D. rumicisR26
    `--D. ulmiR26
  PharalisR26
    |--P. absinthiiR26
    |--P. cerasiR26
    |--P. populiR26
    |--P. salicisR26
    |--P. tanacetiR26
    `--P. vitisR26

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel 1901) [=Ceratovacuna brasiliensis; incl. Astegopteryx fransseni Hille Ris Lambers 1933, Cerataphis fransseni, Aleurocanthus palmae Ghesquière 1934, Cerataphis palmae, Cerataphis variabilis Hille Ris Lambers 1953]Ra96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

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[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

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[HW11] Homan, A., & P. Wegierek. 2011. A new family of aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha) from the Lower Cretaceous of Baissa, Transbaikalia. ZooKeys 130: 167–174.

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[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NNA-ZPH05] Nieto Nafría, J. M., M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & N. Pérez Hidalgo. 2005. Toxoptera citricida or Toxoptera citricidus? The validity of a specific name (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidini). Graellsia 61 (1): 141–142.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[PS96] Pike, K. S., & P. Starý. 1996. New species of Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitoids on Cinara (Homoptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) associated with conifers in the Pacific northwest. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 324–331.

[PSM96] Pike, K. S., P. Starý, R. Miller, D. Allison, L. Boydston, G. Graf & T. Miller. 1996. New species and host records of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the Pacific northwest, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 570–591.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[Ra96] Raspi, A. 1996. Thaumatomyia elongatula (Becker) (Chloropidae) and Leucopis annulipes Zetterstedt (Chamaemyiidae): two Diptera preying on Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Homoptera: Phloeomyzidae) in Italy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 509–516.

[RH96] Remaudière, G., & S. E. Halbert. 1996. American species of the genus Brachyunguis Das (Homoptera: Aphididae), including two new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 249–255.

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