Aphidiinae

Female Aphidius ervi ovipositing in aphid, copyright Alex Wild.

Belongs within: Ichneumonoidea.

The Aphidiinae are a group of braconid wasps endoparasitic on adult and nymphal aphids, characterised by a smooth scutellar sulcus. Species of the genus Aphidius and Trioxys have been used as biological control agents. Aphidiines are divided between the Ephedrini, in which the forewing has vein SR1 complete and the marginal cell closed, and the Aphidiini in which the marginal cell is open (Achterberg 1993).

<==Aphidiinae [Aphidiidae]A93
    |  i. s.: Paralipsis enervisA71
    |         Praeaphidius macrophthalmusRJ93
    |         Diaeretiella rapaePSM96
    |         EuaphidiusPSM96
    |           |--E. cingulatusPSM96
    |           `--E. setigerPSM96
    |         Xenostigmus bifasciatusPSM96
    |         PropraonP92
    |--+--PraonBS23
    |  |    |--P. abjectumA71
    |  |    |--P. exsoletumC81
    |  |    |--P. occidentalePSM96
    |  |    |--P. pequodorumPSM96
    |  |    |--P. unicumPSM96
    |  |    `--P. yakimanumPSM96
    |  `--EphedriniA93
    |       |--Parephedrus relictusA93
    |       `--EphedrusBS23
    |            |--E. californicusPSM96
    |            `--E. plagiatorA71
    `--+--+--PauesiaBS23
       |  |    |--P. ahtanumensis Pike & Starý 1996PS96
       |  |    |--P. cedrobiiPS96
       |  |    |--P. cinaravoraPS96
       |  |    |--P. gilletteiPSM96
       |  |    |--P. juniperaphidisPSM96
       |  |    |--P. pahtonis Pike & Starý 1996PS96
       |  |    |--P. ponderosaecola Pike & Starý 1996PS96
       |  |    `--P. pseudotsugae Pike & Starý in Pike, Starý et al. 1996PSM96
       |  `--+--+--AdialytusPSM96
       |     |  |    |--A. ambiguusPSM96
       |     |  |    |--A. fuscicornisPSM96
       |     |  |    `--A. salicaphisPSM96
       |     |  `--LysiphlebusBS23
       |     |       |--L. flavidusPSM96
       |     |       `--L. testaceipesWFS04
       |     `--+--LysaphidusBS23
       |        `--AphidiiniA93
       |             |--Aclitis obscuripennisA93
       |             `--AphidiusBS23
       |                  |--A. avenaphisPSM96
       |                  |--A. colemaniPK17
       |                  |--A. erviA93
       |                  |--A. fabarum [=Lysiphlebus fabarum]A71
       |                  |--A. hortensisPSM96
       |                  |--A. kamimiaphidisPSM96
       |                  |--A. lupiniPSM96
       |                  |--A. matricariaePSM96
       |                  |--A. ohioensisPSM96
       |                  |--A. picipes [=Bracon (Aphidius) picipes]G20
       |                  |--A. polygonaphisPSM96
       |                  |--A. rhopalosiphiBRL07
       |                  |--A. rosaeMS01
       |                  |--A. smithiPSM96
       |                  `--A. testaceipesRD77
       `--+--MonoctonusBS23
          |    |--M. paludumA71
          |    `--M. washingtonensisPSM96
          `--+--BinodoxysBS23
             |    |--B. carolinensis (Smith 1944)PSM96
             |    |--B. clydesmithi Pike & Starý in Pike, Starý et al. 1996PSM96
             |    |--B. coneiPSM96
             |    |--B. coruscanigrans (Gahan 1911)PSM96
             |    |--B. grafi Pike & Starý in Pike, Starý et al. 1996PSM96
             |    `--B. nearctaphidis Mackauer 1965PSM96
             |--TrioxysBS23
             |    |--T. angelicaeA71
             |    |--T. cirsiiPSM96
             |    |--T. complanatusC81
             |    |--T. exareolatus Viereck 1917PSM96
             |    |--T. infrequensPSM96
             |    |--T. pallidusC81
             |    `--T. rosae Pike, Starý in Pike, Starý et al. 1996PSM96
             `--Acanthocaudus bicolorBS23

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A93] Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen 283: 1–189.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[BRL07] Bostanian, N. J., G. Racette & N. Larocque. 2007. The toxicity of several pesticides to predacious mites found in Quebec apple orchards. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 319–324. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[PS96] Pike, K. S., & P. Starý. 1996. New species of Pauesia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) parasitoids on Cinara (Homoptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) associated with conifers in the Pacific northwest. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 324–331.

[PSM96] Pike, K. S., P. Starý, R. Miller, D. Allison, L. Boydston, G. Graf & T. Miller. 1996. New species and host records of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the Pacific northwest, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 570–591.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

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