Apiaceae

Yareta Azorella compacta, copyright Eduardo Dios.

Belongs within: Apiales.
Contains: Mackinlayoideae, Apioideae, Saniculeae.

The Apiaceae, also known as Umbelliferae, is the family of flowering plants including such members as carrots, celery, hemlock and fennel. Most members of the Apiaceae are characterised by (and the family gets its alternative name from) the production of small unspecialised flowers in clustered heads called umbels. Most species are also herbs with hollow or pith-filled stems, pinnately divided leaves with sheathing bases, and specialized fruits (Downie et al. 2000).

Most members of the Apiaceae have been divided between the subfamilies Apioideae and Saniculoideae. Members of the Apioideae bear flowers in compound umbels whereas the umbels of Saniculoideae are simple. Saniculoideae also lack the secretory ducts (vittae) often found on the fruits of Apioideae. The Steganotaenieae are woody African saniculoids with deciduous leaves and dentate leaf margins, and producing fruits with large wings containing internal cavities (Liu et al. 2003).

Basal members of the Apiaceae have historically been included in a subfamily Hydrocotyloideae but Hydrocotyle itself has been transferred to the Araliaceae. However, a subgroup of the ‘hydrocotyloids’ may be retained in the Apiaceae as the subfamily Azorelloideae. Azorella is a genus of densely tufted herbs found in southern South America and on sub-Antarctic islands; fruits are more or less subcylindrical and five-ribbed (Allan 1961).

<==Apiaceae [Daucaceae, Umbelliferae]
    |--+--ApioideaeDK-DW00
    |  `--Saniculoideae [Saniculidae]DK-DW00
    |       |  i. s.: Phlyctidocarpa flavaCD07, CV06
    |       |--SaniculeaeLWT03
    |       `--Steganotaenieae [Steganotaenioideae]CD07
    |            |--Polemanniopsis marlothiiLWT03
    |            `--Steganotaenia Hochstetter 1844CD07
    |                 `--S. araliaceaLWT03
    `--AzorelloideaeDK-DW00
         |--Azorella Lamarck 1783 [Azorelleae, Azorellineae]A61
         |    |--A. compactaLP16
         |    |--A. diapensioidesS16
         |    |--A. lycopodioidesD03
         |    |--A. macquariensis Orchard 1989SS92
         |    |--A. pedunculataLWT03
         |    |--A. selago Hooker 1847A61 [=A. (sect. Fragosa) selagoC06]
         |    `--A. trifurcataD03
         |--Hermas Linnaeus 1771LP16, PC85 [Hermadideae]
         |    |--H. giganteaCD07
         |    `--H. quinquedentataCD07
         |--Bowlesia Ruiz & Pavon 1794LP16, PC85 [Bowlesieae, Bowlesiinae]
         |    `--B. incanaH93
         |--DrusaLP16
         |--EremocharisLP16
         |    |--E. fruticosaDK-DW00
         |    `--E. longirameaLP16
         |--GymnophytonLP16
         |    |--G. isatidicarpumLP16
         |    `--G. robustumLP16
         |--Diposis bulbocastanumLP16
         |--Asteriscium Chamisso & Schlechtendal 1826LP16, PC85 [Asteriscinae]
         |    `--A. chilenseLP16
         |--Bolax Commerson ex de Jussieu 1789LP16, PC85 [Bolacineae]
         |    |--B. caespitosusLP16
         |    `--B. gummiferaDK-DW00
         |--DickinsiaLP16
         `--Huanaca andinaLP16

Apiaceae incertae sedis:
  AnisosciadiumYY22
  HeterosciadiumYY22
  MelopospermumYY22
  PhysocaulisYY22
  DiplotaeniaYY22
  FerulagoYY22
  FrommiaYY22
  KenopleurumYY22
  Laretia Gillies & Hooker 1830 [Laretieae]PC85
    `--L. acaulisSBM11
  LedebouriellaYY22
  VolkensiellaYY22
  Elaeoselinum Koch ex de Candolle 1830 [Elaeoselinae, Elaeoselineae]PC85
  GuilloneaYY22
  MargotiaYY22
  Siler Miller 1754 [Silerinae, Silerineae]PC85
  Trinia Hoffmann 1816 (nom. cons.) [incl. Apinella Necker ex Rafinesque 1840 (nom. illeg.); Apinelleae]PC85
    `--T. glaucaH91
  RhyticarpusYY22
  AcronemaO88
    |--A. handeliiO88
    |--A. paniculatumO88
    `--A. tenerumO88
  Chamaesium novemjugumO88
  Cortiella hookeriO88
  Physospermopsis obtusiusculaO88
  Selinum Linnaeus 1762 (nom. cons.)PC85 [incl. Thysselinum Adans. 1763BGS05; Selineae]
    |--S. cortioidesO88
    `--S. tenuifoliumO88
  Archangelica Wolf 1776 [Archangelicinae]PC85
    `--A. officinalisTG88
  Microsciadium minutumPT98
  PlatysaceG04
    |--P. filiformisGK00
    |--P. junceaGK00
    `--P. maxwelliiG04
  Glehnia littoralisH93
    |--G. l. ssp. littoralisH93
    `--G. l. ssp. leiocarpaH93
  Levisticum officinaleMH98
  Homalosciadium homalocarpumGK00
  Siebera linearifoliaH87
  Ammoselinum giganteumH93
  Apiastrum angustifoliumH93
  Ciclospermum Lagasca 1821L95
    `--C. leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague 1923 (see below for synonymy)L95
  OreonanaH93
    |--O. clementisH93
    |--O. purpurascensH93
    `--O. vestitaH93
  Orogenia fusiformisH93
  Sphenosciadium capitellatumH93
  TauschiaH93
    |--T. argutaH93
    |--T. glaucaH93
    |--T. hartwegiiH93
    |--T. howelliiH93
    |--T. kelloggiiH93
    `--T. parishiiH93
  Peucedanites spectabilis Heer 1859CBH93
  Piminellites zizioides Unger 1839CBH93
  Umbelliferospermum latahense Berry 1929CBH93
  Umbelliferopsis Gregor 1982CBH93
  Ainsworthia Boiss. 1844KC01
  Cesatia Endl. 1838KC01
  Gasparinia Bertol. 1839KC01
  Tornabenea Parlatore ex Webb 1850 [Tornabenieae]PC85
  Ptilimnium Raf. 1825L95
    `--P. capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. 1830 [=Ammi capillaceum Michx. 1803]L95
  MutellinaBGS05
    |--M. corsica [=Ligusticum corsicum]BGS05
    `--M. purpurea [incl. Ligusticum mutellina]BGS05
  Pachypleurum Ledebour 1829 [Pachypleureae]PC85
    `--P. mutellinoides [=Ligusticum mutellinoides]BGS05
  CervariaBGS05
    |--C. caucasicaBGS05
    `--C. rivinii [=Peucedanum cervaria]BGS05
  Holandrea [incl. Chabraea Raf. 1840 non Adans. 1763]BGS05
    |--H. carvifolium-chabraei (Crantz) Soldano, Galasso & Banfi in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
    |--H. nebrodensis (Guss.) Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
    `--H. schottii [=Peucedanum schottii]BGS05
  Oreoselinum nigrum [incl. Peucedanum oreoselinum]BGS05
  Xanthoselinum venetum [=Peucedanum venetum]BGS05
  DystaeniaBGS05
  ParaligusticumBGS05
  XanthogalumBGS05
  PteroselinumBGS05
    |--P. austriacum [=Peucedanum austriacum]BGS05
    `--P. rablense [=Peucedanum rablense]BGS05
  Bifora Hoffmann 1816 (nom. cons.) [incl. Anidrum Necker ex Rafinesque 1840 (nom. illeg.); Anidreae]PC85
  Kundmannia Scopoli 1777 (nom. cons.) [incl. Arduina Adanson 1763 (nom. rej.); Arduininae]PC85
  Artedia Linnaeus 1753 [Artedieae]PC85
  Astydamia de Candolle 1829 [Astydamieae]PC85
  Cachrys Linnaeus 1753 [Cachrydeae]PC85
  Dorema Don 1831 [Doremeae, Doreminae]PC85
  Eriosynaphe de Candolle 1829 [Eriosynaphineae]PC85
  ‘Heterosperma’ Tausch 1834 non Cav. 1795 [Heterospermeae]PC85
  ‘Hippomarathrum’ Link 1821 non Gaertner, Meyer & Scherbius 1799 [Hippomarathreae]PC85
  Hohenackeria Fischer & Meyer 1836 [Hohenackerieae, Hohenackerioideae]PC85
    `--H. bupleurifoliaC55b
  Johrenia de Candolle 1829 [Johrenieae]PC85
  Libanotis Haller ex Zinn 1757 [Libanotidae]PC85
    `--L. montanaC55a
  Magydaris Koch ex de Candolle 1829 [Magydarideae]PC85
  ‘Petagnia’ Gussone 1827 non Rafinesque 1814 [Petagneae]PC85
  Schulzia Sprengel 1813 (nom. cons.) [Schultzieae]PC85
  Thecocarpus Boissier 1844 [Thecocarpeae]PC85
  Trachymarathrum Tausch 1834PC85
  MackinlayoideaeLP16
  Cannaboides betsileensisLP16

Ciclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague 1923 [=Pimpinella leptophylla Pers. 1805, Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) Muell. in Benth. & Muell. 1867; incl. Sison ammi Jacq. 1773 non L. 1753, Apium ammi (L.) Urb. 1879, Helosciadium ammi (L.) Britt. 1918]L95

Holandrea carvifolium-chabraei (Crantz) Soldano, Galasso & Banfi in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Selinum carvifolium-chabraei Crantz 1766, Peucedanum carvifolium-chabraei; incl. Holandrea carvifolia, P. carvifolia (nom. illeg.)]BGS05

Holandrea nebrodensis (Guss.) Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Pteroselinum nebrodense Guss. 1844, Peucedanum nebrodense]BGS05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BGS05] Banfi, E., G. Galasso & A. Soldano. 2005. Notes on systematics and taxonomy for the Italian vascular flora. 1. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 146 (2): 219–244.

[CD07] Calviño, C. I., & S. R. Downie. 2007. Circumscription and phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae based on chloroplast DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44 (1): 175–191.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DK-DW00] Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie & M. F. Watson. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apioideae. American Journal of Botany 87 (2): 273–292.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LP16] Liu, M., G. M. Plunkett, P. P. Lowry II, B.-E. Van Wyk, P. M. Tilney & A. N. Nicolas. 2016. The phylogenetic significance of fruit and trichome structures in Apiaceae subfamily Mackinlayoideae. Systematic Botany 41 (3): 685–699.

[LWT03] Liu, M., B-E. van Wyk & P. M. Tilney. 2003. The taxonomic value of fruit structure in the subfamily Saniculoideae and related African genera (Apiaceae). Taxon 52: 261–270.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PC85] Pimenov, M. G., & L. Constance. 1985. Nomenclature of suprageneric taxa in Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. Taxon 34 (3): 493–528.

[SS92] Selkirk, P. M., & R. D. Seppelt. 1992. Lycopodium australianum (Herter) Allan on subantarctic Macquarie Island. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 113: 185–191.

[S16] Skottsberg, C. 1916. Benthamiella Speg. und Saccardophytum Speg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54: 44–50.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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