Apiales

 Broadleaf Griselinia littoralis, photographed by Jon Sullivan.

Belongs within: Campanulidae.
Contains: Pittosporaceae, Araliaceae, Apiaceae.

The Apiales are a clade of flowering plants supported primarily by molecular analyses. Members include Pennantia, an Australasian genus of forest shrubs and trees with small, white flowers and blackish drupes (Kårehed 2003).

Characters (from Kårehed 2003): Flowers choripetalous, corollas developing from ring primordium (early sympetaly) (at least in Apiaceae, Araliaceae and Pittosporaceae). Stamens with free filaments (occasionally basally connate in Pittosporaceae), anthers opening by longitudinal slits (sometimes from apical pore in Pittosporaceae). Ovules anatropous, unitegmic.

<==Apiales [Araliales, Hydrocotylinae, Umbellales]
    |--Pennantia Forster & Forster 1776A61 [PennantiaceaeK03]
    |    |--*P. corymbosa Forster & Forster 1776K03, A61 [incl. P. odorata Raoul 1844C06]
    |    |--P. baylisiana Miers 1852G84
    |    |--P. cunninghamiiK03
    |    `--P. endlicheriK03
    `--+--+--Torricellia [Torricelliaceae]K03
       |  |    |--T. angulataK03
       |  |    `--T. tiliifoliaK03
       |  `--+--Aralidium [Aralidiaceae]K03
       |     |    `--A. pinnatifidumK03
       |     `--Melanophylla [Melanophyllaceae]K03
       |          |--M. alnifoliaK03
       |          |--M. aucubifoliaK03
       |          |--M. crenataK03
       |          |--M. madagascariensisK03
       |          `--M. perrieriK03
       `--+--Griselinia Forster 1786A61 [incl. Scopolia Forster & Forster 1776 non Jaquin 1764A61; GriseliniaceaeK03]
          |    |--G. jodinifoliaK03
          |    |--G. littoralis Raoul 1846 [=Pukateria littoralis Raoul 1844]A61
          |    |--G. lucida Forster 1786 [=Scopolia lucida Forster & Forster 1776]A61
          |    |--G. myrtifoliumH79
          |    `--G. racemosaK03
          `--+--PittosporaceaeK03
             `--+--AraliaceaeK03
                |--ApiaceaeK03
                `--MyodocarpaceaeK03
                     |--PseudosciadiumT00
                     |--MyodocarpusK03
                     |    |--M. elegansK03
                     |    `--M. pinnatusK03
                     `--DelarbreaK03
                          |--D. balansaeLP16
                          |--D. collina Vieill. 1865 [incl. D. lauterbachii Harms 1900]P95
                          |--D. harmsiiLP16
                          |--D. longicarpaLP16
                          |--D. michieanaK03
                          `--D. paradoxaK03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[G84] Guymer, G. P. 1984. Icacinaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 204–211. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LP16] Liu, M., G. M. Plunkett, P. P. Lowry II, B.-E. Van Wyk, P. M. Tilney & A. N. Nicolas. 2016. The phylogenetic significance of fruit and trichome structures in Apiaceae subfamily Mackinlayoideae. Systematic Botany 41 (3): 685–699.

[P95] Philipson, W. R. 1995. Araliaceae (excluding Schefflera). In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 1–48. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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