Centris analis, photographed by Stanislav Krejčík.

Belongs within: Anthophila.
Contains: Anthrena, Anthophorini, Osirini, Nomadinae, Melectini, Corbiculata, Xylocopinae, Eucerini.

The Apidae are a diverse group of long-tongued bees in which the clypeus is bent posteriorly lateral to the narrowed labral articulation (Engel 2001). The apids include both solitary and eusocial taxa, with the eusocial taxa all contained within the Corbiculata. A large clade including the Nomadinae, Osirini and Melectini are cleptoparasitic, laying their eggs in the brood cells of other bees. The genus Ctenoplectrina is also cleptoparasitic, but belongs within the Ctenoplectrini which includes a group of bees specialised for collecting floral oils, pollen and nectar from Cucurbitaceae. The Centridini are also often collectors of floral oils but with their preferred host plants belonging to the Malpighiaceae. The Exomalopsini are a tribe of smaller bees found in the New World that are rather hairy and commonly have pale hair bands on the metasoma and a row of long, erect hairs along the inner ocular orbits.

Characters (from Engel 2001): Single subantennal suture; suture meeting lower margin of antennal socket. Facial foveae absent. Lower lateral margins of clypeus bent posteriorly on either side of labrum. Flabellum present; glossa acute; labial palpus with first two segments flattened, sheath-like, and elongate; submentum strongly V-shaped and sclerotized, submental arms articulating with cardines slightly above cardo-stipital articulations. Galeal comb absent; stipital comb and concavity present; basistiptial process elongate. Pre-episternal groove absent. Mesocoxa entirely exposed. Metabasitibial frequently present. Jugal lobe short. Strong metasomal scopa absent; scopa variously formed on metafemur and metatibia, metatibia sometimes developed into a corbicula (in non-parasitic females). Metapostnotum setose. Pygidial plate and fimbria of female typically present.

<==Apidae [Anthophoridae, Anthophorinae, Apinae, Apiti, Bombidae, Euceriti, Parasitae, Tetrapediini, Xylocopiformes]
    |  `--+--OsiriniCSD10
    |     `--+--NomadinaeCSD10
    |        `--MelectiniCSD10
       |    |--EpicharisCSD10
       |    |    |--E. analis Lepeletier 1841CSD10
       |    |    `--E. hirtipes [=Centris (Epicharis) hirtipes]G20
       |    `--+--CorbiculataCSD10
       |       `--CentrisCSD10
       |            |  i. s.: C. cinereaR35
       |            |         C. hoplopodaGEEL09
       |            |         C. muralesR35
       |            |         C. pallidaFJ01
       |            |         C. rhodopusCC01
       |            |         C. (Acanthopus) splendidusG20
       |            |         C. (Centris) versicolorG20
       |            |--+--C. analis (Fabricius 1804)CSD10
       |            |  `--C. longimana Fabricius 1804CSD10
       |            `--+--C. dimidiata (Olivier 1789)CSD10
       |               `--+--C. hoffmanseggiae Cockerell 1897CSD10
       |                  `--+--C. atripes Mocsáry 1899CSD10
       |                     `--C. decolorata Lepeletier 1841CSD10
          |  `--TetrapediaCSD10
          |      |--T. (Tetrapedia) diversipesCSD10
          |      `--T. maura Cresson 1878CSD10
          `--+--Ctenoplectrini [Ctenoplectridae, Ctenoplectrinae]CSD10
             |    |--Ctenoplectrina Cockerell 1930E01
             |    `--Ctenoplectra Kirby in Kirby & Spence 1826E01
             |         |--*C. chalybea Smith 1858M65
             |         |--C. albolimbata Magretti 1895CSD10
             |         |--C. australica Cockerell 1926M65
             |         |--C. bequaerti Cockerell 1930CSD10
             |         `--C. rodhainiBD17
             `--+--+--Ancyloscelis chilensisCSD10, R35
                |  `--Exomalopsini [Exomalopsinae]CSD10
                |       |--AnthophorulaCSD10 [incl. DiadasiellaCC01]
                |       |    `--A. completa (Cockerell 1935)CSD10
                |       `--ExomalopsisR35
                |            |--E. herbstiR35
                |            |--E. penelopeCC01
                |            `--E. solaniCC01
                   |  |--TeratognathiniE01
                   |  `--AncylaCSD10
                   |       |--A. anatolica Warncke 1979CSD10
                   |       `--A. asiatica Friese 1922CSD10
                      |    |--+--TapinotaspoidesCSD10
                      |    |  `--CaenonomadaCSD10
                      |    `--+--ParatetrapediaCSD10
                      |       `--Arhysoceble picta (Friese 1899)CSD10
                              |  `--DiadasiaCSD10
                              |       |--D. australisS72
                              |       |    |--D. a. australisS72
                              |       |    `--D. a. californicaS72
                              |       |--D. bituberculata (Cresson 1878)CSD10
                              |       `--D. consociataS72
                              `--+--Melitoma [Melitomini]CSD10
                                 |    `--M. chilensisBM76
                                 `--Diadasina distincta (Holmberg 1903)CSD10
Apidae incertae sedis:
  Pygomelissa Engel & Wappler in Wappler & Engel 2003WE03
    `--*P. lutetia Engel & Wappler in Wappler & Engel 2003WE03
  Halictoides inermisMS01
  Rhophites quinquespinosusMS01
    |--S. bimaculataR35
    `--S. bombiformisC08
  Monumetha argentifrons [incl. M. borealis]C01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[C08] Cheel. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 287.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—XI. New and little-known insects from New Mexico. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 333–337.

[CC01] Cockerell, T. D. A., & W. P. Cockerell. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—IX. On certain genera of bees. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 46–50.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[FJ01] Field, L. H., & T. H. Jarman. 2001. Mating behaviour. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 317–332. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GEEL09] Greathead, D. J., N. L. Evenhuis & C. J. Einicker Lamas. 2009. Bombyliidae (bee flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 565–576. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S72] Schlising, R. A. 1972. Foraging and nest provisioning behavior of the oligolectic bee, Diadasia bituberculata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 175–188.

[WE03] Wappler, T., & M. S. Engel. 2003. The Middle Eocene bee faunas of Eckfeld and Messel, Germany (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 908–921.

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