Apioninae

Protapion dissimile, from Weevils of Greece.

Belongs within: Brentidae.
Contains: Aplemonini, Oxystomatini, Apion, Notapionini.

The Apioninae are pear-shaped weevils whose larvae mine stems, feed on developing fruit pericarp, or develop in seeds (Anderson & Kissinger 2002).

Characters (from Anderson & Kissinger 2002): Body “pear-shaped”; antenna straight, not geniculate, scape shorter than combined length of first three articles of funicle; funicle with seven articles, articles 6 and 7 narrow, not as wide as apical antennal article and distinct from compact apical club; trochanter long and somewhat cylindrical, femur attached to apex of trochanter.

<==Apioninae [Apionides]B14
    |--ApioniniB14
    |    |  i. s.: ApionLE23
    |    |         Coelocephalapion Wagner 1914Z94
    |    |           |--*C. bryanti [=Apion bryanti]Z94
    |    |           |--C. aculeatum (Fall 1898) [=Apion aculeatum]Z94
    |    |           `--C. rugifrons [=Apion rugifrons]Z94
    |    |         Stenopterapion (Cobosiotherium) scutellaris [=Apion scutellaris]Z94
    |    `--Exapiina [Exapiini]B14
    |         |--LepidapionB14
    |         `--Exapion Bedel 1997AK02 [=Oxytoma Stephens 1829 non Dumeril 1806Z94]
    |              |  i. s.: E. ulicis (Forster 1771)B14 [=Curculio ulicisZ94, Apion ulicisZ94]
    |              |--*E. (Exapion) fuscirostre [=Attelabus fuscirostris]Z94
    |              `--E. (Ulapion Ehret 1997)AK02
    `--+--+--NotapioniniLE23
       |  `--AntliarhinitaeB14
       |       |--PlatymerusB14
       |       `--AntliarhinusLE23
       |            |--A. signatus Gyllenhal 1836B14
       |            `--A. zamiaeB14
       `--+--ProtapionLB20
          |    |--P. dissimileLB20
          |    |--P. interjectum (Desbrochers 1895)HF03
          |    `--P. ononidis (Gyllenhal 1827)HF03
          `--+--Rhinorhynchidius Voss 1922LE23, Z94 [Rhinorhynchidiinae]
             |    |--*R. cylindrirostris Voss 1922 (see below for synonymy)Z94
             |    `--R. australasiae (Lea 1910) [=Apion australasiae]Z94
             `--MalvapiiniAK02
                  |--Malvapion malvae (Fabricius 1775)HF03
                  `--Rhopalapion Schilsky 1906LB20, AK02
                       `--R. longirostre (Olivier 1807)HF03
Apioninae incertae sedis:
  Hidryocneme cretaceum (Rosenhauer 1856)HF03
  Kalcapion pallipes (Kirby 1808)HF03
  Oryxolaemus croceifemoratum (Gyllenhal 1839) [=Apion flavifemoratum var. croceifemoratum]HF03
  Phrissotrichium tubiferum (Gyllenhal 1833)HF03
  Squamapion jordanianum (Voss 1965)HF03
  Taeniapion reitterianum (Wagner 1912)HF03
  CatapionHF03
    |--C. bruleriei (Desbrochers 1874)HF03
    |--C. corsicum (Desbrochers 1888)HF03
    |--C. jaffense (Desbrochers 1896) [=Apion seniculus jaffense]HF03
    |--C. pubescens (Kirby 1811)HF03
    `--C. seniculus (Kirby 1807)HF03
  ApiomorphusZ94
  Apionion Kissinger 1998AK02
    |--A. crassum (Fall 1898)AK02
    `--A. dilatatum (Smith 1884)AK02
  Sayapion Kissinger 1999AK02
  AplemoniniZ94
  OxystomatiniAK02
  PiezotracheliniAK02
    |--Chrysapion Kissinger 1968AK02
    `--Fallapion Kissinger 1968AK02
  Neapion Alonso-Zarazaga 1990 [incl. Xixias Kissinger 1990; Ixapiini]AK02
    `--N. (Neotropion Alonso-Zarazaga 1990)AK02
         `--N. (N.) xanthoxyliAK02
  AspidapiiniAK02
    |--AspidapionHF03
    |    |--A. (Aspidapion) radiolus (Marsham 1802)HF03
    |    `--A. (Koestlinia) aeneum (Fabricius 1775)HF03
    `--Alocentron Schilsky 1901AK02
         |--A. (Bulborhinapion Schatzmayr 1926)AK02
         `--A. (Nearctalox Alonso-Zarazaga 1990)AK02
  CeratapiiniAK02
    |--Omphalapion Schilsky 1901AK02
    |    `--O. hookerorum (Kirby 1808)AK02
    `--CeratapionHF03
         |--C. (Acanephodus) onopordi (Kirby 1808) [=Apion onopordi]HF03
         `--C. (Echinostroma)HF03
              |--C. (E.) basicorne (Illiger 1807)HF03
              `--C. (E.) scalptumHF03
                   |--C. s. scalptumHF03
                   `--C. s. caviceps (Desbrochers 1870)HF03
  AlissapionLB20

*Rhinorhynchidius cylindrirostris Voss 1922 [=Car cylindrirostris; incl. Apion cylindrirostre Lea 1910 non Wagner 1908, A. meridionale Lea 1926, Rhinorhynchidius meridionalis]Z94

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AK02] Anderson, R. S., & D. G. Kissinger. 2002. Brentidae Billberg 1820. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 711–719. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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