Natal plum Carissa grandiflora, copyright Consultaplantas.

Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Vinceae, Tabernaemontaneae, Aspidospermeae, Plumerieae, Apocynoidina.

The Apocynaceae are a primarily pantropical and -subtropical group of flowering plants that are typically laticiferous and produce various alkaloids and cardenolides (Sennblad & Bremer 2002). Subgroups include the Willughbieae, characterised by a gynoecium that is congenitally syncarpous and indehiscent and that contains a fleshy pulp including numerous seeds with copious horny endosperm. Melodineae possess a dense suprastaminal indumentum, a stipular line, pollen in tetrads, and a punctiform hilum (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

<==Apocynaceae [Apocynales, Apocynalium, Rauvolfioideae]
    |    |  i. s.: WillughbeiaSB02
    |    |           |--W. edulisT-W89
    |    |           |--W. firmaT-W89
    |    |           |--W. flavescensT-W89
    |    |           `--W. martabanicaT-W89
    |    |         LandolphiaSB02
    |    |         CoumaSB02
    |    |         LacmelleaSB02
    |    |         PacouriaSB02
    |    |         SabaSB02
    |    |--Ancylobotrys petersianaSB02
    |    `--+--Dictyophleba lucidaSB02
    |       `--Vahadenia cailleiSB02
             |  |    |--Craspidospermum verticillatumSB02
             |  |    `--Melodinus monogynusSB02
             |  `--HunterieaeSB02
             |       |  i. s.: HunteriaSB02
             |       |--Diplorhynchus condylocarponSB02
             |       `--+--Picralima nitidaSB02
             |          `--Pleiocarpa muticaSB02
                      |    |--Acokanthera oblongifoliaSB02
                      |    `--Carissa L. 1767L95
                      |         |--C. bispinosaSB02
                      |         |--C. grandiflora (Mey.) DC. 1844B00, L95 [=Arduina grandiflora Mey. 1835–1837L95]
                      |         |--C. lanceolataLK14
                      |         |--C. macrocarpa (Eckl.) DC. 1844 [=Arduina macrocarpa Eckl. 1830]L95
                      |         |--C. ovataB00
                      |         |--C. paucinervisP03
                      |         `--C. spinarumP03
                           |  i. s.: CondylocarponSB02
                           |         LepiniopsisSB02
                           |--Chilocarpus suaveolensSB02
                           `--+--Lepinia taitensisSB02
                              `--AlyxiaSB02 [incl. Gynopogon Forster & Forster 1776 (nom. rej.)BR65]
                                   |--A. buxifoliaBR65
                                   |--‘Gynopogon’ reinwardtiiA78
                                   |--A. ruscifoliaSB02
                                   |--A. spicataLK14
                                   `--A. thyrsifloraC16
Apocynaceae incertae sedis:
  Notonerium gosseiBR65
  Baynesia lophophoraCV06
    |--E. latifoliumCV06
    `--E. rotundifoliumCV06
  Larryleachia tirasmontana [incl. Lavrania picta ssp. parvipunctata]CV06
  Lavrania haagneraeCV06
    |--O. albocastaneaCV06
    `--O. maculataCV06
         |--O. m. ssp. maculataCV06
         |--O. m. ssp. kaokoensisCV06
         `--O. m. ssp. rangeanaCV06
  Stigmatorhynchus hereroensisCV06
    |--T. marientalensisCV06
    |    |--T. m. ssp. marientalensisCV06
    |    `--T. m. ssp. albipilosaCV06
    `--T. pachyrrhizaCV06
  Tromotriche ruschianaCV06
  Asketanthera picardaeJ87
  Forsteronia Meyer 1818L95
    |--F. brasiliensisC55
    |--F. corymbosaJ87
    `--F. portoricensis Woods. 1934L95
  Ichnocarpus frutescensB00
  Apocynophyllum Unger 1850HL08
    |--A. etheridgei Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |--A. mackinlayi Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |--A. neriifolium [incl. Folium puberulum Hofmann 1931 (n. n.)]HL08
    `--A. warburtoni Ettingshausen 1886F71
  Cascabela thevetiaLK14
  Amsonia tomentosa [incl. A. brevifolia]H93
  Tanghinia veneniferaC06
  Stemmadenia donnell-smithiiOB11
  Cycladenia humilisH93
    |--C. h. var. humilis [incl. C. humilis var. tomentosa]H93
    `--C. h. var. venustaH93
  Aspidospermoxylon uniseriatum Kruse 1954CBH93
  Diporites iskaszentgyorgiiCBH93
  Ditassa lanceolataSK02, C55
  Fernaldia Lynge 1937KC01
  ‘Lactaria’ Rafin. 1838 non Pers. 1797KC01
  Pentalinon Voigt 1845L95
    `--P. luteum (L.) Hansen & Wunderlin 1986 (see below for synonymy)L95

Pentalinon luteum (L.) Hansen & Wunderlin 1986 [=Vinca lutea L. 1756, Urechites lutea (L.) Britt. 1917; incl. Echites andrewsii Chapm. 1860, E. barbata Desv. in Ham. 1825, E. catesbaei Don 1838, E. neriandra Griseb. 1861, E. suberecta Jacq. 1760]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229–251.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *