Great dusky swifts Cypseloides senex, photographed by Tom Stephenson.

Belongs within: Apodiformes.
Contains: Apodinae.

The Apodi include the swifts, aerial insectivores with long narrow wings. Swifts are divided between the true swifts of the Apodidae and the tree swifts of the Hemiprocnidae. The tree swifts have softer plumage than the true swifts, and males are brighter in colouration. They also build flimsy platform nests on top of tree branches, while true swifts glue cup-shaped nests against vertical surfaces such as cliff faces or tree trunks (Austin 1961).

Synapomorphies (from Mayr 2003a): Extremitas omalis of furcula with long and slender processus acromialis and distinct laterally protruding facies articularis acrocoracoidea; humerus with tuberculum supracondylare ventrale elongated and narrow; maximum length of ulna less than 12× width at midsection; distal end of radius with marked tubercle on ventral side of shaft, opposite to tuberculum carpale of ulna; distal part of caudal margin of phalanx proximalis digiti majoris with sulcus for tendon of M. interosseus ventralis; tarsometatarsus with deep sulcus on dorsal surface, proximal to foramen vasculare distale; salivary glands greatly enlarged, saliva used in nest construction; outermost primaries at least 25× length of longest secondaries.

<==Apodi [Macropterygidae, Micropodi]
    |--Hemiprocne Nitzsch 1829P08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: H. coronataJT12 [=H. longipennis corinataA72]
    |    |--H. mystaceaBKB15 [=Dendrochelidon mystaceaB49]
    |    `--+--H. comataBKB15
    |       `--H. longipennisBKB15
    |            |--H. l. longipennisH03
    |            `--H. l. thoaH03
    `--Apodidae [Cypselidae, Macrochires, Micropodidae]MPA77
         |  i. s.: Procypseloides Harrison 1984M02
         |           `--*P. ignotus (Milne-Edwards 1871) (see below for synonymy)M02
         |         SchoutedenapusJT12
         |           |--S. myoptilusMPA77
         |           `--S. schoutedeniJT12
         |         Nephoecetes nigerMPA77
         |         TelacanthuraJT12
         |           |--T. melanopygiaJT12
         |           `--T. ussheriMPA77
         |         Reinarda squamataGZ98
         |--Scaniacypselus Harrison 1984M03a
         |    |--*S. wardi Harrison 1984M03b
         |    `--S. szarskii (Peters 1985)M03b [=Aegialornis szarskiiM02, Primapus szarskiiM02]
                 |  i. s.: S. biscutataJT12
                 |         S. semicollarisMPA77
                 |--S. rutilaJT12
                 `--+--S. phelpsiJT12
                    `--+--S. zonarisJT12
                       `--Cypseloides Streubel 1848M03b, B94 [Cypseloidinae]
                            |--C. cherrieiJT12
                            |--C. cryptusJT12
                            |--C. fumigatusMPA77
                            |--C. lemosiJT12
                            |--C. nigerSWK87
                            |--C. rothschildiJT12
                            |--C. rutilusMPA77
                            |--C. senexJT12
                            `--C. storeriJT12

Hemiprocne Nitzsch 1829P08 [incl. Dendrochelidon Boie 1832B94, Macropteryx Swainson 1832P08; Dendrochelidonidae, Hemiprocni, HemiprocnidaeMPA77]

*Procypseloides ignotus (Milne-Edwards 1871) [=Cypselus ignotus, Apus ignotus, Cypseloides ignotus; incl. Collocalia incerta Milne-Edwards 1871, Cypselavus intermedius Gaillard 1939]M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A72] Abdulali, H. 1972. A catalogue of the birds in the collection of the Bombay Natural History Society—12. Apodidae and Trogonidae. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 378–389.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267-320.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[GZ98] Gerwin, J. A. & R. M. Zink. 1998. Phylogenetic patterns in the Trochilidae. Auk 115 (1): 105-118.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M03a] Mayr, G. 2003a. Phylogeny of early Tertiary swifts and hummingbirds (Aves: Apodiformes). Auk 120 (1): 145-151.

[M03b] Mayr, G. 2003b. A new Eocene swift-like bird with a peculiar feathering. Ibis 145: 382-391.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[MPA77] Moss, W. W., P. C. Peterson & W. T. Atyeo. 1977. A multivariate assessment of phenetic relationships within the feather mite family Eustathiidae (Acari). Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 386-409.

[P08] Paclt, J. 2008. On the triple usage of the family name Apodidae in zoology (Aves; Crustacea; Insecta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 49-52.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

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