Sclerites of the Eocene Synaptites eocoenus, from Frizzell & Exline (1966).

Belongs within: Holothuroidea.
Contains: Achistrum, Theelia, Stueria.

The Apodida is a group of holothuroids characterised by the absence of respiratory trees and generally tube feet. Among living families, the Synaptidae are vermiform and have a scleritome comprised of perforated plates and anchors. The Myriotrochidae and Chiridotidae possess wheel sclerites which are more complex in the Myriotrochidae than in the Chiridotidae. The Achistridae, Calcancoridae, Theeliidae and Synaptitidae are form families for fossil sclerites. The Achistridae are hooks with an eye, shank and spear known from the Carboniferous to the Cretaceous (Frizzell & Exline 1966).

Characters (from Ubaghs 1978): Body cylindrical; respiratory trees and anal papillae lacking; deposits commonly including wheels.

    |--Achistridae [Achistrulidae]B01
    |    |--AchistrumB01
    |    `--Aduncrum Hampton 1958FE66
    |         |--*A. cordatum (Hampton 1957) [=Achistrum cordatum]FE66
    |         |--A. pilgrimiFE66
    |         `--A. triassicumFE66
    |    |--Rota Langenheim & Epis 1957FE66
    |    |    |--*R. martini Langenheim & Epis 1957FE66
    |    |    `--R. campbelliFE66
    |    `--Paleochiridota Croneis 1932P66, FE66
    |         |--*P. plummerae Croneis 1932FE66
    |         |--P. primaevaP66
    |         `--P. robertsoniFE66
    |    |--Calcancoroidea Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
    |    |    |--*C. spandeli Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
    |    |    `--C. trifidaFE66
    |    `--Calcancora Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
    |         |--*C. mississippiensis Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
    |         |--C. arduohamataFE66
    |         |--C. beurleniFE66
    |         |--C. chaussiensisFE66
    |         |--C. cuvillieriFE66
    |         |--C. gallicaFE66
    |         `--C. sieboldiiFE66
    |--Chiridotidae [Chiridotinae]B01
    |    |--Toxodora Verrill 1867B01
    |    |--Taeniogyrus Semper 1868B01
    |    |    `--T. dunedinensisPG98
    |    |--Psammothuria Rao 1968S-PR86
    |    |    `--P. ganapatii Rao 1968S-PR86
    |    |--Protheelia Frizzell & Exline 1956SG93, FE66
    |    |    `--*P. geinitziana (Spandel 1898) [=Chirodota geinitziana]FE66
    |    |--Chiridota Eschscholtz 1829B01
    |    |    |--C. laevis [incl. C. pellucida]BK77
    |    |    |--C. rigida Semper 1868SM15
    |    |    |--C. stuhlmanni Lampert 1896SM15
    |    |    `--C. venustaH04
    |    `--Trochodota Ludwig 1892B01
    |         |--T. furcipraedita Salvini-Plawen 1972S-PR86
    |         |--T. havelockensis Rao 1975S-PR86
    |         |--T. maculata Clark 1921SM15
    |         `--T. venusta (Semon 1887)S-PR86
    |--Myriotrochidae [Myriotrochinae]B01
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Theelia’ praeacuta Mostler & Rahimi-Yazd 1976SG93
    |    |--Semperites Mostler 1971B01
    |    |--Thallatocanthus Carini 1962B01
    |    |    `--*T. consonus Carini 1962FE66
    |    |--Gagesiniotrochus Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |    |--*G. billetti Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |    `--G. astralis Boczarowski 2001B01
    |    |--LepidotrochusB01
    |    |    |--L. kermadecensis (Belyaev 1970)B01
    |    |    `--L. novaguienensis Belyaev 1980B01
    |    `--MyriotrochusBK77
    |         |--M. eurycyclusBK77
    |         |--M. rinckiiBK77
    |         `--M. vitreusBK77
    |--Synaptitidae [Synaptellidae]P66
    |    |--Sclerothurites Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
    |    |    `--*S. clypeus Deflandre-Rigaud 1961FE66
    |    |--Spandelites Frizzell & Exline 1957FE66
    |    |    |--*S. irregularis (Deflandre-Rigaud 1949) [=Synaptites irregularis]FE66
    |    |    |--S. arcuatusFE66
    |    |    `--S. lehmanniFE66
    |    |--Croneisites Frizzell & Exline 1957FE66
    |    |    |--*C. oligocaenicus (Spandel 1900) [=Synapta oligocaenica]FE66
    |    |    |--C. incrassatusFE66
    |    |    |--C. insignisFE66
    |    |    `--C. laevigatusFE66
    |    |--Rigaudites Frizzell & Exline 1957FE66
    |    |    |--*R. cuvillieri (Deflandre-Rigaud 1949) [=Synaptites cuvillieri]FE66
    |    |    |--R. bastropanusFE66
    |    |    |--R. cunninghamiFE66
    |    |    |--R. plummeraeFE66
    |    |    |--R. spinosusFE66
    |    |    `--R. tallaliFE66
    |    `--Synaptites Deflandre-Rigaud 1949 [=Synaptellus Deflandre-Rigaud 1961]FE66
    |         |--*S. eocoenus (Schlumberger 1888) [=Synapta eocoena, *Synaptellus eocoenus]FE66
    |         |--S. aspisFE66
    |         |--S. austriacusFE66
    |         |--S. circularisFE66
    |         |--S. pappiFE66
    |         |--S. reniferFE66
    |         |--S. stueriFE66
    |         `--S. truncatusFE66
    `--Synaptidae [Chiridotitesidae, Chiridotitidae, Rotiformidae, Synaptida, Synaptinae, Theeliidae]P66
         |--Dactylapta dubiosa Koehler & Vaney 1905MG-H11
         |--Euapta Oestergren 1898B01
         |    `--E. godeffroyi (Semper 1868)BM09
         |--Opheodesoma Fischer 1907B01
         |    `--O. grisea (Semper 1868)SM15
         |--Rhabdomolgus Keferstein 1862S-PR86
         |    `--R. ruber Keferstein 1862S-PR86
         |--Pseudocaudina Broili 1926FE66
         |    `--*P. brachyura Broili 1926FE66
         |--Micradites Deflandre-Rigaud 1950FE66
         |    `--*M. incertus Deflandre-Rigaud 1950FE66
         |    |--S. macra (Clark 1938)SM15
         |    |--S. purpureaW93
         |    |--S. recta (Semper 1868)SM15
         |    `--S. vittataF67
         |--Acanthotheelia Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
         |    |--*A. spinosa Frizzell & Exline 1956FE66
         |    `--A. rhaeticaFE66
         |--Auricularites Deflandre-Rigaud 1950FE66
         |    |--*A. parviradiatus Deflandre-Rigaud 1950FE66
         |    `--A. arcuatusFE66
         |    |--L. buski M’Intosh 1866S-PR86
         |    |--L. digitata [=Oestergrenia digitata, Synapta digitata]BK77
         |    `--L. mediaBK77
         |    |--S. aculeataH04
         |    |--S. glabraH04
         |    |--S. maculata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821)BM09
         |    `--S. sieboldii Münster 1843FE66
         |--Hemisphaeranthos Terquem & Berthelin 1875 [incl. Myriotrochites Deflandre-Rigaud 1951]FE66
         |    |--*H. costifera Terquem & Berthelin 1875FE66
         |    |--H. sieboldi (Schwager 1865) [=Chirodota sieboldi, *Myriotrochites sieboldi]FE66
         |    |--H. simplexFE66
         |    `--H. terquemiFE66
         |--Leptosynapta Verrill 1867B01
         |    |--L. albicans [=Synapta albicans]BK77
         |    |--L. bergensisBK77
         |    |--L. clarki (Heding 1928)V-SOFL13
         |    |--L. cruentaBK77
         |    |--L. decaria Östergren 1905S-PR86
         |    |--L. galliennei [=Synapta galliennei]BK77
         |    |--L. inhaerens (Müller 1776)S-PR86 [=Synapta inhaerensBK77]
         |    |--L. latipatina Clark 1921SM15
         |    `--L. minuta (Becher 1906)S-PR86
         |--Polyplectana kefersteinii (Selenka 1867)SM15
         |    |--P. similis (Semper 1868)SM15
         |    `--P. verrilli (Théel 1886)SM15
              |--R. bisperforata (Clark 1938)SM15
              `--R. uncinataPG98
Nomen nudum: Synapta tenera Norman 1864N64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N64] Norman, A. M. 1864. On British Holothuriadae with reference to new species. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 106.

[P66] Pawson, D. L. 1966. Phylogeny and evolution of holothuroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U641–U646. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[S-PR86] Salvini-Plawen, L. v., & G. C. Rao. 1986. Echinoderma. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 701–704. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V-SOFL13] Valentich-Scott, P., D. Ó. Foighil & J. Li. 2013. Where’s Waldo? A new commensal species, Waldo arthuri (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Galeommatidae) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. ZooKeys 316: 67–80.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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