Apoidea

Field digger wasp Mellinus arvensis with fly prey, copyright Line Sabroe.

Belongs within: Euaculeata.
Contains: Ampulicidae, Astatidae, Bembicidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae, Pemphredonidae, Philanthidae, Ammoplanidae, Anthophila, Psenini.

The Apoidea are a diverse clade of stinging wasps including the bees and related carnivorous taxa. Members of the clade are united by posterolateral expansion of the pronotum into a distinct pronotal lobe, midventral fusion of the prepectus, and posteromedial expansion of the metapostnotum to form the propodeal triangle (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Carnivorous apoids have historically been treated as the family Sphecidae but are now divided between several families due to their paraphyly to the herbivorous bees.

<==Apoidea [Crabronites, Larratae, Nyssoninae, Pemphredoninae, Spheciformes, Sphecoidea, Sphecomorpha, Trypoxylidae]GE05
    |--AngarosphecidaeGE05
    |    |--Angarosphex magnusGE05
    |    `--Pompilopterus ciliatus Rasnitsyn 1975EG06
    `--+--AmpulicidaeSN18
       `--+--AstatidaePK17
          `--+--+--BembicidaeSN18
             |  `--+--CrabronidaeSN18
             |     `--+--SphecidaeSN18
             |        `--Mellinus Fabricius 1790BM76 [=Millimus Gimmerthal 1836BM76; MellinidaeSN18, Mellininae, Mellinini]
             |             |--*M. arvensis (Linnaeus 1758)BM76 (see below for synonymy)
             |             |--M. abdominalis Cresson 1882 [incl. M. personatus Fox 1894]BM76
             |             |--M. alpestris Cameron 1890BM76
             |             |--M. bimaculatus Packard 1867 [incl. M. wolcotti Smith 1908]BM76
             |             |--M. crabroneus (Thunberg 1791) (see below for synonymy)BM76
             |             |--M. handlirschi Rohwer 1908BM76
             |             |--M. imperialis Bohart 1968BM76
             |             |--M. obscurus Handlirsch 1888 [incl. M. tristis Pérez 1905]BM76
             |             |--M. pygmaeus Handlirsch 1888BM76
             |             |--M. rufinodus Cresson 1865BM76
             |             `--M. satanicus Siri & Bohart 1974BM76
             `--+--+--PemphredonidaePK17
                |  `--+--PhilanthidaeSN18
                |     `--Entomosericus Dahlbom 1845 [=Enthomosericus, Entomericus; Entomosericinae]BM76
                |          |--*E. concinnus Dahlbom 1845 [=Entomericus concinnus]BM76
                |          `--E. kaufmanni Radoszkowski 1877BM76
                `--+--+--AmmoplanidaeSN18
                   |  |--AnthophilaPK17
                   |  `--Melittosphex Poinar & Danforth 2006 [Melittosphecidae]PD06
                   |       `--*M. burmensis Poinar & Danforth 2006PD06
                   `--PsenidaeSN18
                        |--PseniniPK17
                        `--Odontosphex Arnold 1951BM76 [OdontospheciniSN18]
                             |--*O. bidens Arnold 1951BM76
                             |--O. fritzi Menke 1967BM76
                             |--O. paradoxus Menke 1967BM76
                             `--O. willinki Menke 1967BM76
Apoidea incertae sedis:
  Krombeinictus nordenaeGE05
  Mellinusterius Meunier 1889BM76
    `--*M. aphidium Meunier 1889BM76
  Laphyragogus Kohl 1889 [incl. Leianthrena Bingham in Kohl 1896, Lianthrena Bingham 1897; Laphyragoginae]BM76
    |--*L. pictus Kohl 1889BM76
    |--L. affer Beaumont 1958BM76
    |    |--L. a. afferBM76
    |    `--L. a. orientalis Beaumont 1970BM76
    |--L. kohlii (Bingham in Kohl 1896) [=*Leianthrena kohlii, *Lianthrena kohlii Bingham 1897]BM76
    |--L. pectinatus Beaumont 1959BM76
    |--L. turanicus Gussakovskij 1952BM76
    `--L. visnagae Beaumont 1959BM76
  Xenosphex Williams 1954 [Xenosphecinae]BM76
    |--*X. xerophilus Williams 1954BM76
    |--X. boharti Parker 1966BM76
    `--X. timberlakei Williams 1955BM76
  Aulacophilinus Lomholdt 1980TM19
    `--A. mandibulatus (Turner 1916)TM19
  Cretampulex gracilisSN18

*Mellinus arvensis (Linnaeus 1758)BM76 [=Vespa arvensisBM76, Sphex arvensisL02; incl. Me. alpinus Handlirsch 1888BM76, Sphex annularis Christ 1791 non Poda 1761BM76, Millimus annulatus Gimmerthal 1836BM76, Crabro arthriticus Rossi 1790BM76, C. bipunctatus Fabricius 1787BM76, C. capistratus Schrank 1796BM76, Sphex clavatus Retzius 1783BM76, Mellinus compactus Handlirsch 1888BM76, Vespa diversa Olivier 1792BM76, Sphex gibbus Villers 1789 non Linnaeus 1758BM76, Mellinus ibericus Dusmet & Alonso 1931BM76, Vespa melanosticta Gmelin 1790BM76, V. petiolata Fourcroy 1785BM76, Eumenes petiolataL02, Mellinus pratensis Jurine 1807BM76, Philanthus quinquemaculatus Fabricius 1793BM76, Crabro rachiticus Rossi 1790BM76, Vespa succincta Olivier 1792BM76, V. superba Harris 1776BM76, V. tricincta Schrank 1781 non Fabricius 1775BM76, Crabro u-flavum Panzer 1794BM76, Sphex vagus Linnaeus 1758BM76, C. vacus (l. c.)BM76, C. vagusR13, Solenius vagusBM76]

Mellinus crabroneus (Thunberg 1791) [=Sphex crabroneus, S. ruficornis Villers 1789 non Fabricius 1775, Crabro sabulosus Fabricius 1787 non Sphex sabulosus Linnaeus 1758; incl. C. frontalis Panzer 1797, Mellinus fulvicornis Fabricius 1804, C. petiolatus Panzer 1797, M. ruficornis Fabricius 1793 non Sphex ruficornis Villers 1789, C. sabulosus Olivier 1792 non Fabricius 1787]BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[EG06] Engel, M. S., & D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. The first Cretaceous spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79 (4): 359–368.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[PD06] Poinar, G. O., Jr, & B. N. Danforth. 2006. A fossil bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber. Science 314 (5799): 614.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.

[TM19] Taylor, C. K., M. V. Murphy, Y. Hitchen & D. J. Brothers. 2019. Four new species of Australian velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae, Aglaotilla) reared from bee and wasp nests, with a review of Australian mutillid host records. Zootaxa 4609 (2): 201–224.

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