Araneus

 European garden spider Araneus diadematus, copyright Böhringer Friedrich.

Belongs within: Araneidae.

Araneus is a genus of orb-weaving spiders including the European garden spider Araneus diadematus and related species. The name has been used in a much broader sense in the past (at its broadest, as a generic name for all spiders); many of the species listed below would now be placed in segregate genera.

The type species Araneus angulatus is a widespread species in the Palaearctic region characterised by angular lateral humps on the opisthosoma, which is mostly dark with a light cross-shaped marking between the humps. The European garden spider A. diadematus has a similar colour pattern but lacks the prominent angular humps. The marbled orbweaver A. marmoreus is widespread across the Holarctic realm; females have a subspherical abdomen that may be orange with dark marbling or paler with a dark patch near the rear. The barn spider A. cavaticus of North America has a round abdomen and is predominantly yellow and brown in coloration.

<==Araneus Clerck 1757SC20 (see below for synonymy)
|--A. diadematus Clerck 1757SC20, G76 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--A. marmoreus Clerck 1757SC20, G76 [=Epeira marmoreaK01]
`--+--A. cavaticus (Keyserling 1881)SC20, B11
`--A. gemmoidesSC20

Araneus incertae sedis:
*A. angulatus Clerck 1757G76 [=Aranea angulataAM11, Epeira angulataK01]
A. acuminatus (K. 1871) [=Epeira acuminata]R13
‘Epeira’ albomaculata Lucas 1846E12
‘Epeira’ albotriangula Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ alpicaK01
A. alsine Walckenaer 1802G76 [=Aranea alsineS06, Epeira alsineK01]
A. anantnagensis Tikader & Bal 1981TB81
‘Epeira’ anatipes Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ annulata Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ anseripes Walckenaer 1841 [incl. Cyclosa melanura Simon 1877]KK90
‘Epeira’ arenacea Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ armidaK01
‘Aranea’ arundinacea Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ balanus Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ bertkani Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
‘Aranea’ betulae Sulz. 1776S06
A. biapicatifer Strand 1907 [=Aranea biapicatifera]J98
‘Epeira’ bifida Doleschall 1859D59
A. bilunifer (Pocock 1900)HU08
‘Aranea’ bipunctata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ bivittata Risso 1826R26
‘Epeira’ bogoriensis Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ bradleyi Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
A. brisbanae (Koch 1867)PVD10 [=Epeira brisbanaeKK90]
A. brounii Urquhart 1844S99 [=Aranea brouniM54]
‘Aranea’ caementariaL02a
‘Aranea’ calophylla Walckenaer 1802G76
‘Epeira’ caputlupi Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ carbonariaK01
A. cingulatusDC01
A. circe Savigny & Audouin 1825G76 [=Epeira circeK01]
‘Epeira’ circulissparsa Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ collina Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Aranea’ corollata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ coronata Rainbow 1897R97
‘Epeira’ cossoni Sim. 1885K01
‘Epeira’ cyrtarachnoides Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ dehaanii Doleschall 1859D59
A. depressus Rainbow 1898M72
‘Aranea’ dorsalisL02b
‘Aranea’ dumetorum Vill. 1789 [incl. Epeira formosa, E. hilaris]S06
A. eburnus (Keyserling 1886)F11 [=Epeira eburnaKK90]
A. ejusmodi Bösenberg & Strand 1906AM11
‘Epeira’ enucleata Karsch 1879K92
‘Epeira’ ephippiataK92
‘Epeira’ exanthematica Doleschall 1859KK90
A. exsertusMC13
‘Aranea’ exusta Petrunkevitch 1963P92
‘Epeira’ fastidiosa Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ ficta Rainbow 1896R96
‘Aranea’ flavissima Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ frischi Scop. 1763S06
‘Epeira’ furcifera Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ geniculataD57
A. gibbosus Walckenaer 1802G76 [=Epeira gibbosaV09, Gibbaranea gibbosaG76]
A. grossus Koch 1845G76 [=Epeira grossaK01]
‘Epeira’ heroine Koch 1871KK90
‘Aranea’ heteropthalmaL02b
A. himalayaensis Tikader 1975TB81
‘Epeira’ himalayana Sim. 1889K01
‘Epeira’ hirsutula Stoliczka 1869S69
‘Epeira’ hispida Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ idonea Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Aranea’ incestifica Keys. 1893S06
‘Epeira’ inconspicuaK01
‘Epeira’ indistincta Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ inquieta Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ insularisK18
A. ivieiDC01
‘Epeira’ junghuhnii Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ juniperiK18
‘Epeira’ kuhlii Doleschall 1859D59
‘Epeira’ labyrintheaB06
‘Epeira’ lancearia Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Aranea’ lapidariaL02b
A. lathyrinus (Holmberg 1875) [=Metepeira lathyrina]AM11
‘Aranea’ leuwenhoeki Scopoli 1763S06
‘Aranea’ levipes Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ lineata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira lineata’ Lucas 1846 non Aranea lineata Linnaeus 1758E12
‘Epeira’ lodicula Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
A. lutulentus (Koch & Keyserling 1886)MC13, KK90 [=Epeira lutulentaKK90]
‘Epeira’ malabaricaD57
‘Epeira’ mamillana Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ manipa Doleschall 1857D57
‘Epeira’ margaritacea Risso 1826R26
‘Epeira margaritacea’ Doleschall 1859 non Risso 1826D59
‘Epeira’ marmorata Risso 1826R26
‘Epeira’ mediocris Kulczyński 1901K01
A. miniatusDC01
‘Epeira’ moluccensis Doleschall 1857D57
A. mongolicus Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) mongolicus]S95
‘Epeira’ mulieraria Koch & Keyseling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ necopina Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Aranea’ nidulansL99
‘Epeira’ nigropunctataKK90
‘Epeira’ nigrotarsalis Doleschall 1859D59
A. nordmanni Thorell 1856G76 [=Aranea nordmanniS06]
A. notandus Rainbow 1912M72
‘Aranea’ notata Linnaeus 1758L58
A. nympha Simon 1889TB81
‘Aranea’ obesa (Hentz 1875)S06
‘Epeira’ obtusata Karsch 1892K92
‘Aranea’ ocellata Linnaeus 1758L58
A. omoeda Thorell 1856 [=Gibbaranea omoeda]G76
‘Epeira’ orichalcea Doleschall 1857D57
A. pahalgaonensis Tikader & Bal 1981TB81
A. panchganiensis Tikader & Bal 1981TB81
‘Epeira’ paradoxa Lucas 1846E12
A. pegniaDC01
‘Aranea’ perita Latreille 1799L99
‘Epeira’ phthisicaKK90
A. potanini Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) potanini]S95
A. pratensisDC01
‘Aranea’ proxima (Kulcz. 1885)S06 [=Epeira proximaK01]
‘Epeira’ psittacina Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ pyramidataK92
A. quadratus Clerck 1757G76 [=Epeira quadrataK01]
‘Aranea’ quadripunctata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ quaesita Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ queribunda Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ quieta Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ rabiosula Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ radja Doleschall 1857D57
‘Epeira’ ramulosa Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ rara Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Aranea’ raui Strand 1907J98
‘Aranea’ rayi Scop. 1763S06
‘Aranea’ reaumuri Scop. 1763 [incl. A. reaumuri var. groenlandicola Strand 1906]S06
‘Aranea’ redimita Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ relucensL02b
‘Aranea’ reticulata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ rhodosternon Doleschall 1859D59
A. rhombocephalusMC13
‘Aranea’ riparia Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ rotundula Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ rubicundula Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Aranea’ rufipes Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ rupestris Linnaeus 1758L58
A. saevus Koch 1872G76 [=Epeira saevaK01]
‘Epeira’ scutifera Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ sericeaS69
‘Aranea’ sexpunctata Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Aranea’ silvaticaS06
‘Epeira’ similaris Rainbow 1896R96
‘Epeira’ solersK18
‘Epeira’ solitaria Emerton 1884K01
‘Epeira’ spectabilis Doleschall 1859D59
‘Aranea’ spinosa Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ squamifera Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ stigmatisata Karsch 1878K92
‘Epeira’ stolida Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ strixK18 [=Aranea strixS06]
A. sturmiV09
A. sublutia (Urquhart 1892) [=Epeira sublutia]NS00
‘Epeira’ suspicax Cambridge 1876K01
‘Epeira’ sydneyica Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ tabidaKK90
‘Epeira’ talipedata Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
A. tartaricus [=A. (Epeira) tartaricus]S95
‘Epeira’ theodori Thorell 1894 [=E. (Singa) theodori]T94
‘Epeira’ thomisoides Duf. 1855K92
A. transmarinus (Keyserling 1865)G84, KK90 [=Epeira transmarinaKK90; incl. E. producta Koch 1867KK90]
A. transversus Rainbow 1912M72
A. trifolium (Hentz 1875)DC01, S06 [=Aranea trifoliumS06]
‘Epeira’ trituberculata Lucas 1846E12
‘Aranea’ truncorum Linnaeus 1758L58
A. ullrichi (Hahn 1834) [=Epeira ullrichii, Gibbaranea ullrichii]G76
A. undatus (Oliv. 1789)V09, S06 [=Aranea undataS06]
‘Epeira’ unicolor Doleschall 1857D57
‘Epeira’ urbana Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ usualis Koch & Keyserling 1887KK90
‘Epeira’ vallata Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
‘Epeira’ variegata Risso 1826R26
A. ventricosus (Koch 1878)AM11 (see below for synonymy)
A. verrucosus (Walckenaer 1841) [=Epeira verrucosa]S99
‘Aranea’ viatica Linnaeus 1758L58
‘Epeira’ victoria [incl. E. victoria var. orientalis Kulczyński 1901 non E. orientalis Urquhart 1887]K01
‘Epeira’ viriditusM54
‘Epeira’ vulgarisK18
‘Epeira’ wagneri Rainbow 1896R96
‘Aranea’ westringi (Thorell 1856)S06 [=Epeira westringiiK01]
‘Epeira’ wittfeldaeB06

Nomen nudum: Epeira borealisS06

Araneus Clerck 1757SC20 [incl. Agalenatea Archer 1951G76, Aranea Linnaeus 1758G76, Burgessia McCook 1894TB81, Conepeira Archer 1951TB81, Epeira Latreille 1810G76, Neopora Simon 1864TB81]

Araneus diadematus Clerck 1757SC20, G76 [=Araneus (Epeira) diadematusS95, Aranea diademataC01, Epeira diademataK01; incl. *Aranea diadema Linnaeus 1758G76, Araneus diademaAM11, *Epeira diademaG76, Aranea diadema var. islandica Strand 1906 (n. n.)S06]

Araneus ventricosus (Koch 1878)AM11 [=Aranea ventricosusAM11, Epeira ventricosaK01; incl. E. senta Karsch 1879K01, Araneus (Epeira) sentusS95]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[DC01] Davis, M. J., & F. A. Coyle. 2001. Habitat distribution and life history of Araneus spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 49–57.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe “Sphecinae”. IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L99] Latreille, P. A. 1799. Extrait d’un mémoire sur la famille des araignées mineuses. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (22): 169.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M72] Monroe, R. 1972. Chelicerate type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16 (2): 291–307.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R96] Rainbow, W. J. 1896. Descriptions of some new Araneidae of New South Wales. No. 6. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 320–344, pls 18–20.

[R97] Rainbow, W. J. 1897. Descriptions of some new Araneidae of New South Wales, No. 7. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (4): 628–633, pl. 49.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SC20] Scharff, N., J. A. Coddington, T. A. Blackledge, I. Agnarsson, V. W. Framenau, T. Szűts, C. Y. Hayashi & D. Dimitrov. 2020. Phylogeny of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Araneae: Araneoidea). Cladistics 36: 1–21.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” (Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg), ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[TB81] Tikader, B. K., & A. Bal. 1981. Studies on some orb-weaving spiders of the genera Neoscona Simon and Araneus Clerck of the family Araneidae (=Argiopidae) from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication, Occasional Paper 24: 1–60.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *