Test of Cyclopyxis eurystoma, copyright Ferry Siemensma.

Belongs within: Tubulinea.
Contains: Arcella, Trigonopyxidae, Hyalospheniidae, Centropyxiidae, Plagiopyxidae, Difflugia.

The Arcellinida, testate amoebae, are a group of amoebozoans which contain themselves inside an organic or mineral extracellular test of either self-secreted elements (calcareous, siliceous, or chitinoid) or recycled mineral particles bound together, with a single main opening. Pseudopodia are conical and pointed in species of Phryganellina, and digitate and granular in Difflugina and Arcellina (Adl et al. 2012).

<==Arcellinida [Arcellacea, Eulobosa, Lampramoebae, Testacealobosa, Testacealobosia, Testacida, Testalobosina, Thecamoebaea]
    |  i. s.: Paleoarcella athanataSM03
    |         Geamphorella Bonnet 1959AS12, LT64
    |           `--*G. lucida Bonnet 1959 [=Tracheleuglypha lucida]LT64
    |         Pyxidicula Ehrenberg 1838C-SCL16, FT93
    |           `--*P. operculata (Agardh 1827) [=Frustrulia operculata, Arcella operculata]LT64
    |         LagenodifflugiaAB19
    |         LamtoquadrulaAB19
    |         MicroquadrulaAB19
    |         ZivkoviciaAB19
    |--Phryganellina [Cryptodifflugiacea]AS12
    |    |--MeisterfeldiaAB19
    |    |--Wailesella Deflandre 1928AS12, LT64
    |    |    `--*W. eboracensis (Wailes in Wailes & Penard 1911) [=Cryptodifflugia eboracensis]LT64
    |    |--Phryganella Penard 1902G86 [=Phryanella (l. c.)LT64; incl. Geopyxella Bonnet & Thomas 1955LT64; PhryganellidaeLT64]
    |    |    |--*P. nidulus Penard 1902LT64
    |    |    |--P. acropodiaLB90
    |    |    |--P. hemisphaericaLNB03
    |    |    |--P. marinus Chardez 1971G86
    |    |    `--P. sylvicola (Bonnet & Thomas 1955) [=*Geopyxella sylvicola]LT64
    |    `--Cryptodifflugia Penard 1890AS12, G86 [incl. Geococcus Francé 1913 non Green 1902LT64; Cryptodifflugiidae]
    |         |--*C. oviformis Penard 1890LT64
    |         |--C. brevicolla Golemansky 1979G86
    |         |--C. lanceolata Golemansky 1970G86
    |         |--C. operculataC-SCL16
    |         |--C. paludosa Golemansky 1981G86
    |         `--C. vulgaris (Francé 1913) [=*Geococcus vulgaris]LT64
    `--+--Heleopera Leidy 1879NM05, LT64 [Heleoperidae, Heleoperinae]
       |    |--H. sphagni (Leidy 1874)NM05 [=Difflugia (Nebela) sphagniLT64; incl. *H. picta Leidy 1879LT64]
       |    |--H. petricolaLB90
       |    `--H. roseaLB90
          |    |  i. s.: CornuapyxisAB19
          |    |         EllipsopyxellaAB19
          |    |         EllipsopyxisAB19
          |    |         LamptopyxisAB19
          |    |         NetzeliaAB19
          |    |         SuiadifflugiaAB19
          |    |--ArcellaNM05
          |    |--TrigonopyxidaeAB19
          |    `--Distomatopyxis [Distomatopyxidae]AB19
          |         `--D. couillardiLB90
               |  i. s.: Bullinaria indicaC-SCL16
               |         CornuthecaAB19
               |         GeoplagiopyxisAB19
               |         GibbocarinaAB19
               |         LonginebelaAB19
               |         MrabellaAB19
               |         PadaungiellaAB19
               |         ParacentropyxisAB19
               |         PlanhoogenraadiaAB19
               |         PlanocarinaAB19
               |         ProplagiopyxisAB19
               |         ProtoplagipyxisAB19
               |         SpumochlamysAB19
               |         ConicocassisAB19
               |         Microchlamys Cockerell 1911AB19, LT64 [=Pseudochlamys Claparède & Lachmann 1859 non Lacordaire 1848LT64]
               |           `--*M. patella (Claparède & Lachmann 1859) [=*Pseudochlamys patella]LT64
               |--Paraquadrula Deflandre 1932 [Paraquadrulidae, Paraquadrulinae]LT64
               |    `--*P. irregularis (Archer 1877) [=Quadrula irregularis]LT64
               `--Difflugiidae (see below for synonymy)LT64
                    |--Cucurbitella Penard 1902 (see below for synonymy)LT64
                    |    `--*C. mespiliformis Penard 1902LT64
                    |--Maghrebia Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1958LT64
                    |    `--*M. spatulata Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1958LT64
                    |--Protocucurbitella Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960LT64
                    |    `--*P. coroniformis Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960LT64
                    |--Pseudopontigulasia Van Oye 1956LT64
                    |    `--*P. gessneri Van Oye 1956LT64
                    |--Sexangularia Averintsev 1906LT64
                    |    `--*S. parvula Averintsev 1906LT64
                    |--Loboforamina Jung 1942 (see below for synonymy)LT64
                    |    |--L. playfairi Loeblich & Tappan 1964 (see below for synonymy)LT64
                    |    `--*Corona’ cornula Vejdovský 1881 (see below for synonymy)LT64
                    |--Prantlitina Vašiek & Ruíka 1957HW93 [incl. Prantlitinopsis Vašíček & Růžička 1957LT64]
                    |    |--*P. prantli Vašíček & Růžička 1957LT64
                    |    `--P. sturi Vašíček & Růžička 1957 [=P. (*Prantlitinopsis) sturi]LT64
                    `--Pontigulasia Rhumbler 1895LT64
                         |--P. rhumbleri Hopkinson in Cash & Hopkinson 1909 (see below for synonymy)LT64
                         |--P. bigibbosa [incl. P. bigibbosa var. minor Varga 1963]V63
                         `--P. compressa (Carter 1864)LT64 [=Difflugia compressaLT64, D. pyriformis var. compressaW86]

*Corona’ cornula Vejdovský 1881 [incl. Difflugia proteiformis globularis var. corona Wallich 1864]LT64

Cucurbitella Penard 1902 [incl. Cingodifflugia Jung 1942 (n. n.), Eustoma Jung 1942 (n. n.) nec Salisbury 1806 (ICBN) nec Piette 1855]LT64

Difflugiidae [Cingodifflugiidae, Difflugiida, Difflugiina, Difflugiinae, Diffluginae, Planodifflugiidae, Pontigulasiidae]LT64

Loboforamina Jung 1942 [incl. Corona Vejdovský 1881 nec Albers 1850 nec Récluz 1850, Pseudocucurbitella Gauthier-Lièvre & Thomas 1960 (n. n.)]LT64

Loboforamina playfairi Loeblich & Tappan 1964 [=Difflugia lobostoma var. globulus Playfair 1918 non Arcella globulus Enrenberg 1848]LT64

Pontigulasia rhumbleri Hopkinson in Cash & Hopkinson 1909 [=*P. compressa Rhumbler 1905 non Difflugia compressa Carter 1864]LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-SCL16] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2016. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 275–296.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Testacea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 5–16. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LNB03] Ledeganck, P., I. Nijs & L. Beyens. 2003. Plant functional group diversity promotes soil protist diversity. Protist 154 (2): 239–249.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NM05] Nikolaev, S. I., E. A. D. Mitchell, N. B. Petrov, C. Berney, J. Fahrni & J. Pawlowski. 2005. The testate lobose amoebae (order Arcellinida Kent, 1880) finally find theit home within Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 191–202.

[SM03] Schlegel, M., & R. Meisterfeld. 2003. The species problem in protozoa revisited. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 349–355.

[V63] Varga, L. 1963. Weitere Untersuchungen über die aquatile Mikrofauna der Baradla-Höhle bei Aggtelek (Ungarn) (Biospeologica Hungarica, XVII). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (3–4): 439–458.

[W86] Whitelegge, T. 1886. List of the freshwater Rhizopoda of N. S. Wales. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 497–504.

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