Archipilioidea

Tetrarchiplagia ramosa, from Dumitrica & Zügel (2003).

Belongs within: Nassellaria.
Contains: Sethoperinae, Clathromitrinae, Lophophaeninae, Dimelissinae.

The Archipilioidea are a group of radiolarians with a large cephalis known from the Triassic to the present (Afanasieva et al. 2005).

Characters (from Afanasieva et al. 2005): One or two segments. Cephalis large. Spines A, D, L, V, Ax and bars of spicule large. Spine A sometimes running free as columella; in this case, cephalis not subdivided into chambers and portions. Spine A developing in apical horn. Spines D and L often forming large feet, directed below and sideways. Walls various. Often wall of thorax or all test not developed, only with tangled spicular bars and spicular cyst.

<==Archipilioidea [Archipiliacea, Archipilida, Archipiliicae, Plagoniacea, Plagonida, Plagoniicae]AA05
    |--Pseudosaturniforma Kozur & Mostler 1979 [Pseudosaturniformidae]AA05
    |    `--P. minutaAA05
    |--PlagoniidaeAA05
    |    |--Pentaplegma Haeckel 1881AA05
    |    `--Plagonium Haeckel 1881AA05
    |--CystidiidaeAA05
    |    |--Cystidium Hertwig 1879AA05
    |    |--Nassella Haeckel 1897AA05
    |    `--Paracystidium Cachon & Cachon 1969AA05
    |--SethoperidaeAA05
    |    |  i. s.: Clathrocanium Ehrenberg 1860AA05
    |    |           |--C. diademaAA05
    |    |           `--C. reginaeH04
    |    |         Turriseiffelus Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
    |    |           |--*T. invalidus Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
    |    |           |--T. invalidissimus Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
    |    |           `--T. yaoi Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
    |    |--SethoperinaeAA05
    |    `--TetraplectinaeAA05
    |         |--Enneaplegma Haeckel 1881 [incl. Heptaplegma Haeckel 1881]AA05
    |         |--Polyplecta Haeckel 1887AA05
    |         |--Tetraplecta Haeckel 1881AA05
    |         |--Talariscus Loeblich & Tappan 1961 [=Obeliscus Popofsky 1913 nec Beck 1837 nec Gray 1847]LT61
    |         |    `--*T. pseudocuboides (Popofsky 1913) [=*Obeliscus pseudocuboides]LT61
    |         `--Plectaniscus Haeckel 1887AA05
    |              `--P. cortiniscus Haeckel 1887DZ03
    `--Archipiliidae [Plectaniidae]AA05
         |--ClathromitrinaeAA05
         |--LophophaeninaeAA05
         |--DimelissinaeAA05
         |--PlectaniinaeAA05
         |    |--Dumetum Popofsky 1908AA05
         |    `--Plectanium Haeckel 1881AA05
         |--ArchipiliinaeAA05
         |    |--Archipilium Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    |--Nothotripodiscinus Deflandre 1972AA05
         |    `--Parapoulpus Kozur & Mostler 1979AA05
         |--Nabolellinae [Nabollellidae]AA05
         |    |--Nabolella Petrushevskaya 1981AA05 [=Squinabolella Kozur & Mostler 1979 non Pessagno 1969DZ03]
         |    |--Fueloepicyrtis Kozur & Mostler 1981AA05
         |    `--Acuticassis Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
         |         `--*A. gotica Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
         |--SethopiliinaeAA05
         |    |--Arachocorallium Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    |--Arachnocalpis Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    |--Archibursa Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    |--Peromelissa Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    |--Sethopilium Haeckel 1887AA05
         |    |--Tripodocorys Haeckel 1881AA05
         |    `--Plectacantha Haeckel 1881AA05
         |         `--P. oikiskos Jørgensen 1900BC98
         `--ZamolxinaeAA05
              |--Zaldacria Dumitrica 1982AA05
              |--Zamolxis Dumitrica 1982AA05
              |    `--Z. coronaAA05
              `--Tetrarchiplagia Dumitrica 1982AA05
                   |--*T. arborescens Dumitrica 1982DZ03
                   |--T. abietinoides Dumitrica 1982DZ03
                   |--T. ramosa Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
                   |--T. tithoniana Dumitrica & Zügel 2003DZ03
                   `--T. verticillata Dumitrica 1982DZ03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BC98] Bjørklund, K. R., G. Cortese, N. Swanberg & H. J. Schrader. 1998. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropalaeontology 35: 105–140.

[DZ03] Dumitrica, P., & P. Zügel. 2003. Lower Tithonian mono- and dicyrtid Nassellaria (Radiolaria) from the Solnhofen area (southern Germany). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 5–72.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

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