Clear sundail Architectonica perspectiva, copyright Nick Hobgood.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.

The Architectonicoidea are a group of marine gastropods uniting the Architectonicidae with related fossil families. The Architectonicidae, sundails, have discoidal or depressed-conical shells with a rather flat base, often with a very widely open umbilicus within which the coiled whorls are visible, and a sculpture of beaded spiral and radial ribs (Wilson & Gillett 1971). Fossil relatives include the Middle Triassic Amphitomaria cassiana which has a discoidal shell with a slightly concave outer whorl face bordered by well-defined carinae (Knight et al. 1960).

Architectonicoidea [Architectonicacea]
|--Cassianaxis Bandel 1994 [Cassianaxidae]BR05
| `--*C. riedeli Bandel 1994BR17
| |--Amphitomaria Koken 1897BR05
| | |--*A. cassiana (Koken 1889) [=Euomphalus cassianus, Discohelix (*Amphitomaria) cassiana]KC60
| | `--A. dockeryana Kiel & Bandel 2001KB01
| `--Neamphitomaria Bandel 1988KB01
| |--*N. stantoni (Sohl 1960) [=Pseudomalaxis stantoni]KB01
| |--N. planospira Dockery 1993KB01
| `--N. torallolina Kiel & Bandel 2001KB01
`--Architectonicidae [Architectomidae, Architectonicinae, Heliacidae, Solariacea, Solariadae, Solariidae]BR05
| i. s.: ‘Eutrochus’ quadricinctusKBP02
|--Rinaldoconchus ampezzanus (Zardini 1980)TTE93
|--Teretropoma Rochebrune 1881 [Teretropomatinae, Teretropomidae]BR05
| `--*T. perrieri Rochebrune 1881BR17
|--Pseudomalaxis Fischer 1885 [Pseudomalaxidae, Pseudomalaxinae]BR05
| |--*P. zanclaea (Philippi 1844) [=Bifrontia zanclaea]BR17
| `--P. pateriformis Kiel, Bandel & Perrilliat 2002KBP02
|--Mangonuia Mestayer 1930 [Mangonuidae, Mangonuiidae]BR05
| `--*M. bollonsi Mestayer 1930P61
|--Grandeliacus Iredale 1957WG71
| `--G. moretensenae Iredale 1957WG71
|--Wangaloa Finlay 1927F27b
| `--*W. plana (Marshall 1917) [=Omalaxis planus; incl. Architectonica inornata Marshall 1917 non Gabb 1864]F27b
|--Episcynia Mörch 1878F27b
| `--*E. inornata [=Solarium inornatum]F27b
|--Awarua Mestayer 1930P61
| `--*A. amoena (Murdoch & Suter 1906)P61 [=Omalaxis amoenaP61, Heliacus amoenusF27a]
|--Philippia Gray 1847 [Philippiinae]BR05
| |--*P. lutea (Lamarck 1822) [=Solarium luteum]P61
| |--P. manifesta Iredale 1931P61
| `--P. radiata (Röding 1798)WG71
|--Torinia Gray 1842 (nom. rej.) [Toriniacea, Toriniidae, Toriniinae]BR05
| |--*T. cylindracea (Dillwyn 1817) [=Trochus cylindraceus]BR17
| |--T. caelata (Hinds 1844) [=Solarium caelatum]H09
| |--T. conica Pease 1865K65
| |--T. dorsuosa (Hinds 1844) [=Solarium dorsuosum]H09
| |--T. rotundataC64
| `--T. variegata (Gmelin 1791)WG71 (see below for synonymy)
|--Heliacus d’Orbigny 1842 [Heliacinae]BR05
| |--*H. heberti (Deshayes 1830) [=Solarium heberti]BR17
| |--H. alencasterae Kiel, Bandel & Perrilliat 2002KBP02
| |--H. bicanaliculatus (Valenciennes 1832) [incl. H. radiatus (Menke 1851)]EO65
| |--H. caelatus (Hinds 1844)PP78
| |--H. imperfectus (n. d.)F27a
| |--H. maorianus Powell 1934P61
| |--H. reticulatus Dockery 1993KBP02
| |--H. stamineus (Gmelin 1791) [incl. H. variegatus (Gmelin 1791)]F27a
| `--H. variegatus (Gmelin 1791)WBS-S15
|--Granosolarium Sacco 1892KBP02
| |--*G. milligranum (Lamarck 1822) [=Solarium milligranum]KBP02
| |--G. alveataKBP02
| |--G. coffea Sohl 1964KBP02
| `--G. voragiformis Stephenson 1941KBP02
|--Psilaxis radiatus (Röding 1798)WBS-S15
`--Architectonica Röding 1798 [=Architectoma (l. c.), Solarium Lamarck 1799; Solariinae]BR05
|--*A. perspectiva (Linnaeus 1758)P61, WG71 [=Trochus perspectivusP61, T. (Solarium) perspectivusG20]
| |--A. p. perspectivaWG71
| `--A. p. fressa Iredale 1936WG71
|--‘Solarium’ acutum Conrad 1860F27b
|--A. aucklandica (Marshall 1918) [=Heliacus aucklandicus]F27a
|--A. balcombensis Finlay 1927 [=Solarium acutum Tenison-Woods 1879 non Conrad 1860]F27b
|--‘Solarium’ bicanaliculatum Valenciennes 1833C64
|--‘Solarium’ granulatum [incl. S. quadriceps, S. verrucosum]C64
|--A. hybrida (Linnaeus 1758) [=Trochus hybridus]H09
|--‘Solarium’ implexum Mighels 1845J49
|--A. inornata Gabb 1864F27b
|--A. marwicki Allan 1926F27a
|--A. maxima Philippi 1848WG71
|--‘Solarium’ mighelsi Philippi 1853 [=S. cyclostomum Mighels 1845 non Menke 1930]J49
|--A. ngaparaensis Suter 1917F27a
|--A. perdix (Hinds 1844)WG71 [=Solarium perdixH09]
|--‘Solarium’ placentale [incl. S. placentula]C64
|--A. plana (Seeley 1861) [=Solarium planum]F27b
|--A. reevei Hanley 1862 [incl. A. offlexa Iredale 1931]WG71
|--A. straminea (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus stramineus]H09
|--‘Solarium’ tesselatumG79
|--A. trilineatum (Conrad 1841)P12
`--‘Solarium’ wannonensis Tenison-Woods 1878F71

Torinia variegata (Gmelin 1791)WG71 [=Trochus variegatusH09, Solarium variegatumC64; incl. Torinia areolaC64, To. perspectiviuncula (nom. inv.)C64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EO65] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1965. New molluscan records for the Galapagos Islands. Nautilus 78 (4): 116–120.

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[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[KB01] Kiel, S., & K. Bandel. 2001. About Heterostropha (Gastropoda) of the Campanian of Torallola, Spain. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 46 (3–4): 319–334.

[KBP02] Kiel, S., K. Bandel & M. del C. Perrilliat. 2002. New gastropods from the Maastrichtian of the Mexcala Formation in Guerrero, southern Mexico, part II: Archaeogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Heterostropha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 226 (3): 319–342.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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