Carolina mantleslug Philomycus carolinianus, copyright Andrew Cannizzaro.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Arion.

The Arionoidea are slugs and semislugs characterised by an aulacopod foot (surrounded by a supra-pedal groove) and odontognath (ribbed) jaw (Hausdorf 1998). A small shell is present in Binneya and Anostomopsis; other arionoids are shell-less. In members of the family Philomycidae, the mantle covers nearly the entire dorsum of the animal and is only very shortly or not free anteriorly; in other families, the mantle is either extensively free anteriorly or covers only part of the animal’s dorsum. Arionidae have the breathing hole in the anterior half of the mantle whereas it is in the posterior half in Ariolimacidae (Burch & Pearce 1990).

<==Arionoidea [Arionidea, Arionoidei, Arionoinei, Endodontinia]
    |--Anadenus Heynemann 1863 [Anadenidae, Anadeninae]BR05
    |    `--*A. giganteus Heynemann 1863BR17
    |--Anastomopsis Sandberger 1871 [=Anostomopsis (l. c.); Anastomopsidae, Anostomopsidae]BR05
    |    `--*A. rotellaris (Mathéron 1832) [=Helix rotellaris]BR17
    |--Binneya Cooper 1863 [Binneyidae, Binneyinae]BR05
    |    |--*B. notabilis Cooper 1863BR17
    |    `--B. guadelupensisBP90
    |    |--Ariolimax Mörch 1859 [Ariolimacinae]BR05
    |    |    |--*A. columbianus (Gould 1851)BR17 [=Limax columbianusBR17, L. (Amalia) columbianusC64]
    |    |    `--A. californicusS77
    |    `--Zacoleus Pilsbry 1903 [Zacoleinae]BR05
    |         |--*Z. idahoensis Pilsbry 1903BR17
    |         `--Z. lyrataBP90
    |              |--Z. l. lyrataBP90
    |              `--Z. l. russelliBP90
    |--Philomycidae [Togata]BR05
    |    |--Tebennophorus Binney 1842 [Tebennophoridae, Tebennophorinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*T. caroliniensis (Bosc 1819) [=Limax caroliniensis]BR17
    |    |--Pallifera Morse 1864BP90
    |    |    |--P. dorsalisBP90
    |    |    |--P. fosteriH68
    |    |    |--P. hemphilliBP90
    |    |    |--P. marmoreaH68
    |    |    |--P. mutabilisH68
    |    |    |--P. ragsdaleiB68
    |    |    `--P. secretaH68
    |    |--Megapallifera Hubricht 1956BP90
    |    |    |--M. ragsdaleiBP90
    |    |    `--M. wetherbyiBP90
    |    `--Philomycus Rafinesque 1820 [Philomycina, Philomycinae]BR05
    |         |--*P. flexuolaris Rafinesque 1820BR17 [=P. carolinianus flexuolarisD63]
    |         |--P. batchi Branson 1968B68
    |         |--P. bisdosus Branson 1968F89
    |         |--P. carolinianus Bosc 1802F89 [incl. P. carolinianus lividusH68]
    |         |--P. togatus Gould 1841F89
    |         |--P. venustus Hubricht 1953F89
    |         `--P. virginicusB68
    `--Arionidae [Arconidae]SS10
         |--Craterarion pachyostracon Taylor 1954TTE93
         |--Geomalacus indifferens (Boettger 1911)TTE93
         |--Tetraspis Hagenmüller 1885 [Tetraspididae]BR05
         |    `--*T. letourneuxi Hagenmüller 1885BR17
         |--Anadenulus Cockerell 1890BP90
         |    `--A. cockerelliBP90
         |--Hemphillia Bland & Binney 1872BP90
         |    `--H. dromedariaBP90
         |--Hesperarion Simroth 1891BP90
         |    `--H. nigerBP90
         |--Magnipelta Pilsbry 1953BP90
         |    `--M. mycophaga Pilsbry 1953BK63
         `--Prophysaon Bland & Binney 1873BP90
              `--P. foliolatumBP90

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B68] Branson, B. A. 1968. Two new slugs (Pulmonata: Philomycidae: Philomycus) from Kentucky and Virginia. Nautilus 81 (4): 127–133.

[BK63] Brunson, R. B., & N. Kevern. 1963. Observations of a colony of Magnipelta. Nautilus 77 (1): 23–27.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D63] Dimelow, E. J. 1963. Mollusks from hardwoods of the Chigneto Isthmus. Nautilus 77 (1): 21–23.

[F89] Fairbanks, H. L. 1989. The reproductive anatomy and taxonomic status of Philomycus venustus Hubricht, 1953 and Philomycus bisdosus Branson, 1968 (Pulmonata: Philomycidae). Nautilus 103 (1): 20–23.

[H68] Hubricht, L. 1968. The land snails of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Nautilus 82 (1): 24–28.

[S77] Senseman, D. M. 1977. Neurobehavioral studies on feeding in the terrestrial slug Ariolimax californicus. Veliger 20 (1): 56–57.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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