Aristolochiaceae

Western wild ginger Asarum caudatum, copyright Brewbooks.

Belongs within: Magnoliidae.
Contains: Aristolochia.

The Aristolochiaceae are perennial herbs, shrubs and vines found in tropical and warm temperate regions (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial from rhizome, woody vine, shrub, aromatic. Stem branched, sometimes nearly all underground. Leaves simple, basal, cauline, or arising singly from rhizome, alternate; blade generally cordate, entire. Flowers generally solitary, axillary or terminal. Flower bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 3, free or fused; petals generally absent; stamens generally 6 or 12, free or fused to style; pistil generally 1, ovary generally inferior or partly so, chambers generally 6. Fruit generally a capsule. Seeds many.

<==Aristolochiaceae [Aristolochiales, Hydnoraceae, Hydnorales]APG16
    |--+--AristolochiaDS04
    |  `--Lactoridaceae [Lactoridales, Lactoridineae]DS04
    |       |--Lactoris fernandezianaDS04
    |       `--Lactoripollenites africanus Zavada & Benson 1987CBH93
    `--Asaroideae [Asaraceae]T00
         |--Saruma henryiT00, DS04
         `--AsarumDS04 [incl. HexastylisT00]
              |--A. canadenseDS04
              |--A. caudatumH93
              |--A. europaeumC55
              |--A. hartwegiiH93
              |--A. lemmoniiH93
              |--A. marmoratumH93
              `--A. virginicumR56
Aristolochiaceae incertae sedis:
  Thottea siliquosaUB06
  HydnoraT00
  ProsopancheT00
    |--P. americanaB14
    `--P. bonacinaeB14
  PararistolochiaB00
    |--P. australopithecurusB00
    |--P. deltanthaB00
    |--P. laheyanaB00
    |--P. linearifoliaB00
    |--P. peninsulensisB00
    |--P. praevenosaB00
    `--P. sparusifoliaB00
  Aristolochioxylon prakashii Kulkarni & Patil 1977CBH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[R56] Reed, C. F. 1956. Hyla cinerea in Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, with notes on the taxonomic status of Hyla cinerea evittata. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (10): 328–332.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[UB06] Udayan, P. S., & I. Balachandran. 2006. Cleistanthus sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach.—a rare and little known endemic plant rediscovered from wild populations in Kollam district of Kerala state, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 217–218.

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