Metopus contortus, from Proyecto Agua.

Belongs within: Alveolata.

The Armophorea is a group of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates supported as a clade by molecular analysis. Morphological synapomorphies of the Armophorea have not been identified, though all members of the clade possess hydrogenosomes (Lynn 2003).

<==Armophorea [Armophorina]
    |  i. s.: NyctotheroidesHH01
    |           |--N. deslierresaeHH01
    |           `--N. parvusHH01
    |         Mylestoma [Mylestomatidae]AB19
    |         OdontostomatidaAB19
    |           |--Discomorphella [Discomorphellidae]AB19
    |           `--EpalxellidaeAB19
    |                |--EpalxellaAB19
    |                `--SaprodiniumAB19
    |    |--Clevelandella [Clevelandellidae]AS12
    |    |--ParacichlidotherusAS12
    |    |--Inferostoma [Inferostomatidae]AB19
    |    |--Neonyctotherus [Neonyctotheridae]AB19
    |    |--Sicuophora [Sicuophoridae]AB19
    |    `--Nyctotherus [Nyctotheridae]HH01
    |         |--N. cordiformisWC02
    |         |--N. ovalisWC02
    |         `--N. veloxWC02
         |    |--LudioAB19
         |    |--SulfonectaAB19
         |    `--CaenomorphaAS12
         |         |--C. levanderiALS95
         |         `--C. uniserialisHA01
              |    |--CirranterAB19
              |    `--UrostomidesAB19
              |    |--PalmarellaAB19
              |    `--TropidoatractusAB19
                        |--M. contortusWC02
                        |--M. minorFS-K03
                        |--M. palaeformisHH01
                        `--M. striatusHH01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[ALS95] Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews 59 (1): 143–169.

[FS-K03] Foissner, W., M. Strüder-Kypke, G. W. M. van der Staay, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay & J. H. P. Hackstein. 2003. Endemic ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae): A combined morphological, molecular, and ecological study. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 365–372.

[HA01] Hackstein, J. H. P., A. Akhmanova, F. Voncken, A. van Hoek, T. van Alen, B. Boxma, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay, G. van der Staay, J. Leunissen, M. Huynen, J. Rosenberg & M. Veenhuis. 2001. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments. Zoology 104: 290–302.

[HH01] Hackstein, J. H. P., A. H. A. M. van Hoek, J. A. M. Leunissen & M. Huynen. 2001. Anaerobic ciliates and their methanogenic endosymbionts. In: Seckbach, J. (ed.) Symbiosis: Mechanisms and Model Systems pp. 451–464. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Doordrecht (The Netherlands).

Lynn, D. H. 2003. Morphology or molecules: how do we identify the major lineages of ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora)? European Journal of Protistology 39: 356–364.

[WC02] Wright, A.-D. G., & A. Colorni. 2002. Taxonomic re-assignment of Cryptocaryon irritans, a marine fish parasite. European Journal of Protistology 37: 375–378.

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