Arrenuridae

Diagnostic drawings of Arrenurus (Arrhenuropsides) parviscutatus, from Rosso de Ferradás 2006. Figs 1-3: female (fig. 3: palp); figs 4-5: male.

Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.
Contains: Arrenurus (Arrenurus), Arrenurus (Dadayella), Arrenurus (Megaluracarus), Arrenurus (Truncaturus).

The Arrenuridae are a diverse family of water mites, most species of which are classified in the genus Arrenurus. Adults of this genus are strongly sclerotised, often strong swimmers, and commonly predators of ostracods. Larvae are parasites of nematocerous Diptera or Odonata. Arrenurus species are found in virtually all types of freshwater habitats worldwide; the smaller genera have more restricted ranges in the tropics and may represent divergent offshoots within Arrenurus (Walter et al. 2009). The species Micruracaropsis phytotelmaticola, for instance, is found in phytotelmata in the Amazon region (Rosso de Ferradás & Fernández 2005).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with dorsal and ventral shields present; palpi usually uncate (except in Micruracaropsis); genital acetabula numerous, lying on acetabular plates extending laterally from gonopore, none in gonopore (except one in male of Thoracaphoracarus); idiosoma of female relatively unmodified, but posterior end of idiosoma in males moderately to extremely modified. Larvae with idiosoma moderately flattened dorsoventrally; gnathosoma projecting beyond anterior edge of dorsal plate, entirely exposed in dorsal view; dorsal plate bearing five pairs of setae, including verticils, scapulars, and setae c1 laterally; setae c2 and d2 similar to other hysterosomatic setae; excretory pore setae ps1 and ps2 present on plate; legs with five movable segments; leg genua with setae Ge5 borne on tubercles; tibia I bearing seven setae (and two solenidia), lacking Ti11; leg tarsi bearing setae Ta14; tarsus II-III with setae Ta4 and Ta6 long (usually as long as respective segments); tarsus III bearing at least eleven setae, including Ta12.

<==Arrenuridae
    |--Wuria Viets 1916H98
    |    `--W. boutit Harvey 1989H98
    |--Micruracaropsis Viets 1939RFF05
    |    `--M. phytotelmaticola (Viets 1939)RFF05
    |--Thoracaphoracarus Viets 1914RFF05
    |    |--T. (Thoracaphoracarus) simplex Cook 1988RFF05
    |    `--T. (Xenthoracaphorus Cook 1988)RFF05
    |         `--T. (X.) chilensis Cook 1988RFF05
    `--Arrenurus Dugès 1834 [Arrenurinae]RFF05
         |  i. s.: A. acutidentatus Viets 1959RFF05
         |         A. acutiepimeratus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. affinisD01
         |         A. agrionicolusD99
         |         A. albator (O.F.M. 1776)GS91
         |         A. amplipenicillatus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. anbangbangPH10
         |         A. anisitsi Daday 1905RFF05
         |         A. apertus Daday 1905RFF05
         |         A. australicus Lundblad 1941H98
         |         A. balladoniensis Halik 1940 [incl. A. quadripapillatus Lundblad 1941]H98
         |         A. biscissusBK91
         |         A. boettgeri Viets 1968RFF05
         |         A. caquetiorum Rosso de Ferradás & Fernández 2001RFF05
         |         A. ceylonicusWL09
         |         A. cheetus Cook 1986H98
         |         A. clavigerBK91
         |         A. cometes Lundblad 1937RFF05
         |         A. confertus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. coronatorBK91
         |         A. corsicusGS96
         |         A. crassicaudatus Kramer 1875PH91
         |         A. cuspidatorWP99
         |         A. cylindratusCS91
         |         A. danbyensisWP02
         |         A. dentipalpis Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |         A. dinotoformisWL09
         |         A. ensiferPH10
         |         A. fissicornisWP99
         |         A. fissipetiolatus Lundblad 1947H98
         |         A. forpicatoides Lundblad 1941 [=A. forcipatoides (l. c.)]H98
         |         A. forpicatusBK91
         |         A. globatorWL09 [=Hidracha globatorB82; incl. Trombidium variatorB82, Atax variatorB82]
         |         A. harpagopalpus Walter 1929 [=Arrhenurus (l. c.) harpagopalpus]H98
         |         A. harveyiPH10
         |         A. haswelli Cook 1986H98
         |         A. hirsutipalpis Walter 1919RFF05
         |         A. honoratus Thor 1911RFF05
         |         A. kitchingi Smith & Harvey 1989H98
         |         A. liliaceusPH10
         |         A. longicaudatusWL09
         |         A. maculatorD01
         |         A. mantoniensisPH10
         |         A. margatellus Cook 1986H98
         |         A. membranator Thor 1901GS91
         |         A. multangulus Daday 1905RFF05
         |         A. multipapillatus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. munovusWL09
         |         A. neumanniD01
         |         A. nobilisBK91
         |         A. novaehollandiae Lundblad 1947H98
         |         A. otodus Cook 1986H98
         |         A. ovum Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. papilliger Viets 1959RFF05
         |         A. pennapodus Rosso de Ferradáas 1989RFF05
         |         A. perforatus (George 1881)PH91
         |         A. promacrus Lundblad 1936RFF05
         |         A. propinquus Daday 1905RFF05
         |         A. pseudoaffinis Piersig 1906 [=Arrhenurus (l. c.) pseudoaffinis]H98
         |         A. pseudotenuicollis Wilson 1961D91
         |         A. purpureusPH10
         |         A. pustulatorBK91
         |         A. pygmaeusGS96
         |         A. quadrisetosus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. roobeeki Smit 1992H98
         |         A. rostratus Daday 1898H98
         |           |--A. r. rostratusH98
         |           `--A. r. degeneratus Viets 1984H98
         |         A. rouxiPH10
         |         A. securiformisBK91
         |         A. separatusPH10
         |         A. sinuatorO91
         |         A. subarcticusBK91
         |         A. tasmanicus Lundblad 1941H98
         |         A. tetracyphusBK91
         |         A. thienemanni Viets 1984H98
         |         A. tortus Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. tricornutus Viets 1955H98
         |         A. tripartitusPH10
         |         A. tumulosus Viets 1954RFF05
         |           |--A. t. tumulosusRFF05
         |           `--A. t. intercursor Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. uberifer Viets 1954RFF05
         |         A. vanderpalae Smit 1992H98
         |         A. victorianus Viets 1978 [=A. victoriensis (l. c.)]H98
         |--A. (Arrenurus)RFF05
         |--A. (Arrhenuropsides Viets 1954)RFF05
         |    |--A. (A.) parviscutatus (Viets 1954)RFF05
         |    `--A. (A.) rionegrensis Rosso de Ferradás 1978RFF05
         |--A. (Arrhenuropsis Viets 1954)RFF05
         |    |--A. (A.) clavilaminata (Viets 1954)RFF05
         |    `--A. (A.) curvipalpis (Viets 1954)RFF05
         |--A. (Brevicaudaturus Smit 1998)RFF05
         |    |--A. (B.) imperator Lundblad 1944RFF05
         |    |    |--A. i. imperatorRFF05
         |    |    `--A. i. goliath Lundblad 1953RFF05
         |    `--A. toriger Viets 1940RFF05
         |--A. (Dadayella)RFF05
         |--A. (Megaluracarus)RFF05
         |--A. (Stygarrenurus Cook 1980)S86
         |    `--A. (S.) golfitensis Cook 1980S86
         `--A. (Truncaturus)RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B82] Berlese, A. 1882. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fascicle 2. Typis Fratelli Salmin: Patavii.

[BK91] Biesiadka, E., & W. Kowalik. 1991. Water mites (Hydracarina) as indicators of trophy and pollution in lakes. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 475–481. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CS91] Cicolani, B., & A. Di Sabatino. 1991. Sensitivity of water mites to water pollution. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 465–474. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D91] Davids, C. 1991. Water mites: the impact of larvae and adults on their host and prey populations. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 497–501. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D99] Davids, C. 1999. Size tactics and developmental strategies in water mites. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 151–155. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[GS96] Gerecke, R., & A. Di Sabatino. 1996. Historical zoogeography and evolution of habitat preference in water mites (Hydracarina) of the central Mediterranean region. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 523–527. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[GS91] Gerecke, R., & J. Schwoerbel. 1991. Water quality and water mites (Acari, Actinedida) in the Upper Danube region, 1959–1984. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 483–491. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[O91] Olomski, R. 1991. The evolutionary transformation of osmotic regulation in the life cycle of freshwater mites (Hydrachnidia). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 57–64. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[PH91] Punčochár, P., & J. Hrbáček. 1991. Water mites in the plankton of Hubenov Reservoir and their relations to fish stock composition. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 449–457. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B., & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181–224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WP02] Williams, C. R., & H. C. Proctor. 2002. Parasitism of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) by larval mites (Acari: Parasitengona) in Adelaide, South Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 41: 161–163.

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