Jaw of Mimomys pliocaenicus, copyright Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Cricetidae.
Contains: Clethrionomys, Dicrostonyx, Myodes, Eothenomys, Microtus.

The Arvicolinae, voles and lemmings, are a Holarctic group of small rodents with a tail less than half the length of the head and body, an angular skull, and a short rostrum. The lemmings (e.g. Dicrostonyx and Lemmus) are cold-climate specialists, found in Arctic and tundra regions, whereas the voles (Microtus, etc.) are also found in more temperate regions. The lemmings have broader and more massive skulls than the voles, with the genera of lemmings being distinguished by characters of the teeth. The muskrat Ondatra zibethicus is a larger semi-aquatic, omnivorous species that is native to North America but also introduced to parts of Eurasia and South America.

<==Arvicolinae [Arvicolidae, Microtinae, Microtini]
|--+--Neofiber alleniFS15, M87
| `--Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus 1766)FS15, M76 [=Castor zibethicusB75]
| |--O. z. zibethicusMH03
| |--O. z. cinnamominusB75
| `--O. z. idahoensisMH03
| | `--+--PhenacomysFS15
| | | |--P. intermediusM87
| | | `--P. ungavaFS15
| | `--ArborimusFS15
| | |--A. pomo Johnson & George 1991FS15, N10
| | `--+--A. albipesFS15 [=Phenacomys albipesBP87]
| | `--A. longicaudusFS15 [incl. A. silvicolaJ68]
| `--+--SynaptomysFS15
| | |--S. borealisFS15
| | | |--S. b. borealisHC52
| | | `--S. b. sphagnicola Preble 1899 [=S. (Mictomys) sphagnicola]HC52
| | `--S. cooperiM87
| | |--S. c. cooperiB75
| | |--S. c. gossii (Coues in Coues & Allen 1877) [=Arvicola (Synaptomys) gossii]B75
| | |--S. c. saturatus Bole & Moulthrop 1942HC52
| | `--S. c. stoneiHC52
| `--+--Myopus schisticolorFS15
| `--Lemmus [Lemmini]FS15
| |--+--L. portenkoiFS15
| | `--L. trimucronatusFS15
| `--+--L. lemmusFS15
| `--+--L. amurensisFS15
| `--L. sibiricusFS15
| | |--H. fertilisFS15
| | `--H. wynneiFS15
| `--+--MyodesFS15
| `--+--EothenomysFS15
| `--CaryomysFS15
| |--C. evaFS15
| `--C. inezFS15
`--+--+--+--Dinaromys bogdanoviFS15
| | |--Propliomys Kretzoi 1959P04
| | | `--P. hungaricus (Kormos 1934) [=Dolomys hungaricus]P04
| | `--Pliomys Méhely 1914FS15, P04
| | |--P. coronensis (Méhely 1914)P04
| | |--P. episcopalis Méhely 1914P04
| | |--P. graecus De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975P04
| | `--P. lenki (Heller 1930)FS15, P04
| `--+--Promimomys Kretzoi 1955P04
| | |--P. microdon Janossy 1974P04
| | `--P. moldavicus (Kormos 1932) [=Mimomys moldavicus]P04
| `--+--ArvicolaFS15
| | | i. s.: A. arvalisT66
| | | A. monticolaT66
| | | A. mosbachensis (Schmidtgen 1911)P04
| | | A. socialisT66
| | | A. terrestris (Linnaeus 1758)K92
| | | A. zanthognathaJ23
| | |--A. sapidus Miller 1908FS15, K92
| | `--+--A. amphibiusFS15
| | `--A. schermanFS15
| `--Mimomys Forsyth Major 1902P04
| |--M. davakosi Van de Weerd 1979P04
| |--M. gansunicusDW04
| |--M. gracilis (Kretzoi 1959)P04
| |--M. peiiHC95
| |--M. pliocaenicus (Forsyth Major 1889)P04
| |--M. polonicus Kowalski 1960P04
| |--M. proseki Fejfar 1961P04
| |--M. savini Hinton 1910P04
| `--M. stehlini Kormos 1931P04
| |--E. alaicusFS15
| |--E. fuscocapillusFS15
| |--E. lutescensFS15
| |--E. talpinusFS15
| `--E. tancreiFS15
| | |--L. lagurusFS15
| | `--L. luteusBP87
| `--EolagurusFS15
| |--E. luteusFS15
| `--E. przewalskiiFS15
| |--C. nivalisFS15
| `--+--C. gudFS15
| `--C. robertiFS15
`--+--+--Lemmiscus Thomas 1912FS15, M87
| | `--*L. curtatus [=Lagurus curtatus]M87
| `--ProedromysFS15
| |--P. bedfordiFS15
| `--P. liangshanensisFS15
`--+--+--‘Microtus’ gregalisFS15 [=Mus (Stenocranius) gregalisPM61]
| `--LasiopodomysFS15
| |--L. fuscusFS15
| `--+--L. brandtiiFS15
| `--L. mandarinusFS15
`--+--Phaiomys leucurusFS15
| |--V. clarkeiIT07
| |--V. kikuchiiIT07
| |--V. millicensFS15
| `--V. musseriFS15
|--N. juldaschiFS15
`--+--N. sikimensisFS15
`--+--N. forrestiFS15
`--N. ireneFS15

Arvicolinae incertae sedis:
|--M. kansasensis (Hibbard 1952)MH03
|--M. landesiMH03
|--M. meltoniMH03
`--M. vetusMH03
Pliophenacomys osborniMH03
Bjornkurtenia Kowalski 1992P04
`--B. canterranensis (Michaux 1976) [=Trilophomys canterranensis]P04
Baranomys Kormos 1933P04
`--B. longidens (Kowalski 1960)P04
Dolomys Nehring 1898P04
|--*D. milleri Nehring 1898P04
|--D. adroveri (Fejfar, Mein & Moissenet 1990)P04
|--D. nehringi Kretzoi 1959P04
`--D. occitanus (Thaler 1955) [=Mimomys occitanus; incl. M. hassiacus atavus Fejfar 1961]P04
|--A. andersoniJ68
|--A. imaizumiJ68
`--A. niigataeJ68

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HC52] Hall, E. R., & E. L. Cockrum. 1952. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of North American microtines. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 5 (23): 293–312.

[HC95] Huang W., R. Ciochon, Gu Y., R. Larick, Fang Q., H. Schwarcz, C. Yonge, J. de Vos & W. Rink. 1995. Early Homo and associated artefacts from Asia. Nature 378: 275–278.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23–30.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[M87] Modi, W. S. 1987. Phylogenetic analyses of chromosomal banding patterns among the Nearctic Arvicolidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 109–136.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PM61] Paradiso, J. L. & R. H. Manville. 1961. Taxonomic notes on the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) in Alaska. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 77–92.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

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