Asclepiadeae

Cynanchum aphyllum, copyright Axel Strauß.

Belongs within: Asclepiadoideae.
Contains: Asclepias, Metastelmatinae.

The Asclepiadeae are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis, defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the most expansive clade including Asclepias and Matelea but not members of the Fockeeae, Marsdenieae or Ceropegieae. Members include the twining shrubs of the genus Cynanchum, some of have the leaves reduced and scale-like.

<==Asclepiadeae [Gonolobeae]TGL-S08
    |--Schizostephanus alatusSB02
    |--+--AsclepiasSB02
    |  `--Calotropis Brown 1910SB02, L95
    |       |--C. giganteaB00
    |       `--C. procera (Ait.) Ait. f. 1811 [=Asclepias procera Ait. 1789]L95
    |            |--C. p. ssp. proceraPP07
    |            `--C. p. ssp. hamiltoniiPP07
    `--+--+--MetastelmatinaeTGL-S08
       |  `--+--Schubertia grandifloraTGL-S08
       |     `--AraujiaTGL-S08
       |          |--A. hortorumSB02
       |          `--A. sericoferaTGL-S08
       `--+--CynanchumTGL-S08
          |    |--C. acutumAGF98
          |    |--C. aphyllum (see below for synonymy)J54
          |    |--C. carnosumB00
          |    |--C. christineaeB00
          |    |--C. compactumJ54
          |    |--C. ellipticumTGL-S08
          |    |--C. floribundumB00
          |    |--C. leptolepisB00
          |    |--C. liebianaB00
          |    |--C. mahafalenseJ54
          |    |--C. messeri [=Vohemaria messeri]J54
          |    |--C. meyeriCV06
          |    |--C. ovalifoliumB00
          |    |--C. pachycladonJ54
          |    |--C. pedunculatumLK14
          |    |--C. perrieriJ54
          |    |--C. puberulumLK14
          |    |--C. scopariumI02
          |    |--C. utahenseH93
          |    `--C. vincetoxicumBR65
          `--+--Oxystelma bornouenseTGL-S08
             |--TylophoraTGL-S08
             |    |--T. benthamiiB00
             |    |--T. cinerascensLK14
             |    |--T. fleckiiCV06
             |    |--T. flexuosaLK14
             |    |--T. heterophyllaTGL-S08
             |    |--T. flexuosaB12
             |    |--T. sylvaticaSB02
             |    `--T. tenuisT-W89
             `--+--PergulariaTGL-S08
                |    |--P. daemiaTGL-S08
                |    |--P. extensaK73
                |    |--P. odoratissimaT-W89
                |    `--P. tomentosa [incl. Daemia cordata]D17
                `--GomphocarpusTGL-S08
                     |--G. cancellatusB00
                     |--G. fruticosus Br. 1809C06 [=Asclepias fruticosaBR65]
                     |--G. physocarpusTGL-S08 [=Asclepias physocarpa BR65]
                     `--G. semiplectensCV06
Asclepiadeae incertae sedis:
  MicrolomaTGL-S08
    |--M. hereroenseCV06
    |--M. penicillatumCV06
    `--M. tenuifoliumTGL-S08
  OrthosiaSB02
    |--O. serpyllifoliaSB02
    `--O. thymifolia Schlechter 1916S16
  Fischeria stellataSB02
  Matelea Aublet 1775SB02, L95
    |--M. borinquensis Alain 1986L95
    |--M. hirsutaSB02
    |--M. maritima (Jacq.) Woodson 1941 (see below for synonymy)L95
    |--M. parvifoliaH93
    |--M. sintenisii (Schltr.) Woodson 1941 (see below for synonymy)L95
    `--M. variifolia (Schltr.) Woodson 1941 (see below for synonymy)L95
  Tweedia coeruleaSB02
  VincetoxicumSB02
    |--V. canescensC55
    `--V. hirundinariaSB02
  Gonolobus Michx. 1803L95
    `--G. stephanotrichus Griseb. 1866 [=Vincetoxicum stephanotrichum]L95
  PycnorhachisT-W89
  AsterostemmaT-W89
  AtherandraT-W89
  MyriopteronT-W89
  Conchophyllum richthofeniT-W89, G31
  RaphistemmaT-W89
  PhyllantheraT-W89
  Streptocaulon banmiiT-W89

Cynanchum aphyllum [=Asclepias aphylla; incl. Sarcocyphula gerrardi, Cynanchum sarcostemmatoides, Sarcostemma tetrapterum]J54

Matelea maritima (Jacq.) Woodson 1941 [=Asclepias maritima Jacq. 1760, Cynanchum maritimum (Jacq.) Jacq. 1763, Gonolobus maritimus (Jacq.) Br. 1811, Ibatia maritima (Jacq.) Decne. in DC. 1844; incl. I. muricata Griseb. 1861]L95

Matelea sintenisii (Schltr.) Woodson 1941 [=Gonolobus sintenisii Schltr. in Urb. 1899, Vincetoxicum sintenisii (Schltr.) Britton 1925]L95

Matelea variifolia (Schltr.) Woodson 1941 [=Gonolobus variifolius Schltr. in Urban 1899, Vincetoxicum variifolius (Schltr.) Britton 1925]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[I02] Ivie, M. A. 2002. Colydiidae Erichson 1845. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 445–453. CRC Press.

[J54] Jacobsen, H. 1954. Handbuch der sukkulenten Pflanzen: Beschreibung und Kultur der Sukkulenten mit Ausnahme der Cactaceae vol. 1. Abromeitiella bis Euphorbia. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[K73] Krishnan, M. 1973. An ecological survey of the larger mammals of peninsular India (continued). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 469–501.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[S16] Schlechter, R. 1916. Asclepiadaceae andinae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 119): 1–2.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[TGL-S08] Thulin, M., D. Goyder & S. Liede-Schumann. 2008. Cibirhiza spiculata (Apocynaceae), a remarkable new species from eastern Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 617–624.

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